The key idea of sustainable development in the fields of economics, demographic politics, and regional planning remains a significant issue. The ability to create a new sustainable planning model is essential to all our futures, but it will require sharing experience between different countries and study fields. This was indicated by Professor Qizhi Mao at the 2013 International Conference on Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development (30 Aug. - 1 Sept. 2013, Beijing). Professor Yan Li and Anrong Dang (2014) also emphasized the importance of sharing case studies. Unfortunately, spatial planning studies cannot be conducted under the same conditions as laboratory experiments, which can be tested. In addition, different countries have different situations regarding their economy, religion, and culture. Thus, sustainable development is interpreted differently.
Urban heat island effect has caused countries around the world to set a lowcarbon and sustainable environment as their goal. It suggests that communities can achieve the goal by planting trees and vegetation which can cool down the temperature and reduce the effect on the environment. The paper aims at exploring how to promote the application of vertical greening that increases green quantity as well as how to regulate maintenance of it in urban rehabilitation. Through the literature review and foresighted design point of view, implications suggest a way of arranging plants in groups, natural irrigation, rainwater recycling systems, encouraging vertical greening, and the need of standards to provide and manage vertical greening. A case of a fiber reinforced plastic vertical greening system has introduced a further understanding of it.
The main objective of this paper is to explore the contradictory relationship between the climate and physical structure of the built environment in Erzurum as one of the coldest climate cities in Turkey. It mainly questions whether the urban form and geometry (size, density, street orientation and ventilation), height and shape of the buildings and vegetation in selected districts of Erzurum are compatible with the cold climate conditions. In this direction, disturbances, vulnerability of urban ecosystem, construction practices, street orientations, settlement patterns, housing typology, density, average height, hard-surfaces, distances, flora and density of green areas are analyzed. The findings show that the urban built environment in Erzurum (City Centre, Dadaskent and Yildizkent districts) is not consistent with the cold climate conditions. Urban heat island, urban sprawl, ventilation problems and existing air pollution, and high temperature differences in the city are the threatening factors for ecologically sustainable urban development. In the context of this study, it is aimed to formulate urban design guidelines for the city of Erzurum in cold climate zone. Urbanization and urban form of the three different districts, which are the focus areas of this research, must be reconsidered from a climate sensitive perspective, otherwise new development areas will not be energy efficient and resilient against changes, surprises and risks. For ecologically sustainable urban development, climate sensitive urban design guidelines must urgently be prepared and implemented for Erzurum.
During the past 50 years, there have been strong demands for establishing the North and South Green Network and its eco-corridors to resolve problems of urbanization in Seoul. Following this, from 1994, the Seoul City Government began building ecological paths to re-establish ecological networks. 25 ecocorridors were created between 1994 and 2013 in Seoul, however, the designed eco-corridors presented some problems with biased functions, losing a major objective of eco-corridors which are required to perform as both a citizens’ moving route as well as wildlife passage. In addition, eco-corridors in Seoul, a heavily populated city, are not likely to serve the originally intended functions as well as those in natural areas. Accordingly, to appropriately perform its own function as a moving route for humans and wildlife, ecocorridors in urban areas are required to be comprehensively analysed with consideration of both ecological and pedestrian aspects. Study sites have been selected from the green zone of the Gangnam area. Specifically, it includes Seodal-ro, Sadang-ro, Solbat-ro, and Nambusoonhwan-ro, which form a linking footpath between Seodal mountain neighborhood park, Gachi mountain and Gwanak mountain. This study is to examine some issues of the selected urban eco-corridors, which are supposed to act as moving routes for both humans and animals through analysis of the current situation and usebehavior survey of eco-bridges in Seoul, and to interpret the meaning of ecocorridors in urban areas. Through the results of user behavior analysis of four eco-bridges, on one hand, it is found that the appearance frequency of wild animals is very low and species diversity is quite limited. On the other hand, the frequency of human utilization is very high and the purposes of utilization are varied. As known from these results, eco-bridges in Seoul could have more functions and meanings, not only concentrating on the function as a wildlife passage. This study offers the insight that eco-bridges in Seoul could be considered in a broader sense, focusing on human use rather than focusing on their ecological function in a narrow sense.
The use of Renewable Energy (RE) is becoming popular for its clean and safe characteristics. The development of RE is also one of the crucial steps for the future sustainable development of energy resources. Nowadays, rural areas are facing issues such as depopulation and economic decline. How to find solutions to these issues while aiming to achieve sustainable development is a challenging task. Rural areas with RE in Japan and China have been established recently, and there are a few practical cases worth referencing. To identify key factors for RE promotion and its sustainability values in rural areas, this study presents two pioneer cases: Kuzumakicho in Japan and Chongming Island in China. Each of them stands for strong RE advancement in their home country and bears specific characteristics. Instead of a comparative study, this study examines the two cases as parallel case studies using a review of the literature, local plans, policy documents, and a questionnaire sheet with a SWOT analysis approach integrated in the methods. Key factors included municipal planning concepts and subsidies from national or regional governments among others, while contributions to sustainability include environmental education, local tourism, disaster prevention/mitigation, and waste re-use among others. In conclusion, the lessons learned and recommendations for future RE promotion in Japanese and Chinese rural areas are given.
Mega-event strategies and their impact on the development of host cities have drawn increasing interest as they have become part of wider city development strategies. However, many city leaders are challenged by a gigantic and complex task after the events: how to deal with the post-use of large event venues and facilities, and how to use the events as a catalyst to facilitate urban development. Mega-event strategies may provide a stimulus for wider urban investments and change. They help to provide host cities an engine for economic growth, facilitating city revitalisation and even urban physical restructuring, enhancing city image, and transforming a city into a globally competitive city. Where every host city expects to experience some form of short and long term impacts, the so-called ‘legacy’, it is, however, difficult for most host city organisers to think beyond the Games in any systematic fashion due to the pressing nature and planning complexities involved. Therefore, although the post-Games period is by far the longest period that stretches for decades after the Games to affect a host city, it is “clearly the least-planned for period”. Due to time pressure, poor consideration of the long-term impact may make Olympic venues ‘white elephants’ after the Games have taken place, isolated in their city landscapes. These possible negative impacts raise the following questions: 1) What strategies can help a host city improve post-event usage of event-related facilities? 2) What strategies should a host city follow to facilitate post-event development in a more sustainable way? Based on the examination of legacy creation strategies of a number of Olympic host cities, with Beijing and London in particular, the research aims to identify what urban strategies lead to the improvement of the post-event usage of event-related facilities and long-term benefits for the city development of host cities.
Seoul City promotes ‘Urban Agriculture’ by consistently building vegetable garden parks and community vegetable gardens and inviting citizens to participate in the new movement. However, far too little attention has been paid to proper evaluations on the existing spontaneous agricultural lands, despite the fact that some agricultural lands remain neglected or public lands are being illegally used by individuals. Our research area, Gwanak-gu, is a representative case with many spontaneous agricultural lands that carry various risk factors such as that of disaster, environmental pollution, and degradation of the landscape in the city. The purpose of this study is to categorize the types and problems of agricultural lands in Gwanak-gu through a field survey. By using Geographic Information System and satellite images, field surveys and interviews, we showed the current distribution status. As a result, 45 areas of agricultural lands, mainly located around the edges of Mt. Gwanak, were found. The agricultural lands were classified into six categories: three of those, flat Vegetable Garden, Edge Vegetable Garden and Private Weekend Farm, are well managed, while three types, Farm in Forest Edge, Farm in Forest, Shabby Farm, are in poor condition. The study discusses what caused lands to be either well managed or ruined. This study has an objective to discover whether spontaneous agricultural lands have the possibility to become community open spaces.
What is the best way in designing a credible institution? Can one be designed using a top approach through mass social engineering where rules mainly come from the top level? Or designed from the bottom level where the rules of the institution are taken from the local level? Do the socio-economic contexts of the local people need to be considered in designing policies? These are the main empirical and theoretical questions that this paper intends to answer. This paper is a study of the land rights impact on two Indigenous groups in Malaysia, namely the Orang Ulu and the Orang Asli. Both Indigenous groups have been affected by the Bakun Hydro Electric Project (BHP) in Sarawak and the Kelau Dam Project (KDP) in Pahang. By using land rights as a subject of exploration, this paper demonstrates how the development of resettlement schemes carried out in Malaysia have failed in giving credibility to the institution. In this research study, land rights impacts are part of the impacts caused by the development project which has involved Indigenous people who have strongly relied on land as a source of their livelihood. This research study has employed a mixed method study which involves various data generation instruments, namely survey, interview, observation as well as content analyses. This research study has found that the negative impacts of the loss of land rights have altered the ways Indigenous people governed their land including how they own, use and enforce the land system. It was obvious that land rights are a fundamental feature in creating a credible institution in the context of Indigenous people in Malaysia. This paper hopes to illustrate the indigenous peoples’ perception on the loss of their land rights as well as to enrich the debates on the credibility of the institution.
As a new estimate, we analyzed a mismatch between public evaluation and planning decisions.In this paper, we call this mismatch “the failure of spatial planning for sustainable development”. This paper will compare two adjoining municipalities (α town and β city) that employed different settlement relocation processes after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami (March 11, 2011). α town selected seven new candidate relocation sites from non surplus land of pre-existing city plan by a citizen participation and holistic land selection process.On the other hand, β city selected unused city planning sites (pre-existing), which were already planned before the 2011 disaster. The reconstruction process of α town involved citizen and public co-determination, whereas β city only determined a quick-fix solution without renewed planning. Unfortunately, most disaster reconstruction efforts in Tohoku appear similar to β city. With a field survey on 16 relocation sites in 2012, we asked 80 university students to evaluate the environments of the two municipalities' relocation sites by Semantic Differential Method. As a result, α town’s relocation sites, which are determined with citizen and public codetermination, are higher valued that of β city. Then, by overlay, analyzing the accessibility of the relocation sites with a new transportation network, we found that the accessibility of relocation sites in α town is better. Our result suggests that planning processes with low administrative agency and public participation, tend to be more successful in producing an attractive redevelopment plan.