This special issue is a collection of papers presented in the 2017 Workshop on Urban Planning and Management held in Tokyo, Feb. 18-19, 2017. The selected papers are published with IRSPSD International, which can be grouped around two pillars. Namely, Water dimension and Energy dimension in urban studies.
The water-quality index is a grading system for presenting water-quality data and comparing water of varying quality. It can be used in water quality trend analyses and presents valuable information to policy makers, managers, and other nontechnical people. For exploring water quality and identifying the main pollution parameter in the lower reaches of Liao River, Single Factor Evaluation (SFE) method in the form of a Comprehensive Water Pollution Index (CWPI), the Nemerow-Sumitomo Water Quality Index (NWQI), and the Comprehensive Water Quality Identification Index (CWQII) method were used to evaluate water quality in lower reaches of Liao River, Liaoning province, China. The results proved that at Zhaoquan river and Wailiao river the water quality status was good, and Pangxiegou river and Qingshui river showed unsatisfactory water quality status. The major pollution indicator in lower reaches of Liao River was petroleum, and compared with the other assessment methods, CWQII was found to give more useful and objective information, and it is worth further promoting water quality inspections in lower reaches of Liao River. Finally, according to the distribution of industry in the Liao river basin, this study makes some relevant suggestions for sustainable development in the future.
Proper management of irrigation and fertilizer for different crops is beneficial to the sustainable development of agriculture. Zhangye Oasis, which is an arid region surrounded by water dependent agricultural areas with canal-type irrigation systems, has been utilising the majority portion of the discharge of Heihe River. Maize is the dominant cash crop, while the cultivation of a new cash crop, stevia, has also been under expansion in recent years. This study was conducted with both a social survey approach and science experiment approach, aiming to comprehensively understand the management of irrigation, fertilizer and soil data, simultaneously. The water consumption, fertilizer application and soil condition of stevia and maize fields in Linze County were investigated and compared. The social survey on the perception of farmers revealed that the cultivation of stevia, which had greater cash ability, required less fertilizer than maize cultivation, while water consumption showed little difference. The nitrate and ammonium contents of stevia fields were higher than those of maize fields, indicating that stevia fields could be cultivated with less chemical fertilizer. The result that the nitrate contents in the middle and lower soil samples were higher than those in upper soil samples, suggests nitrate leaching. According to the results, it is suggested that less chemical fertilizer can be applied and less water used for irrigation in stevia fields of the Zhangye Oasis, and there is therefore a good opportunity for adopting stevia as a new type of cash crop for sustainable agriculture, with improved management of irrigation and fertilizer usage.
Urban river management is a critical factor in an urban planning blueprint. However, such management includes various influences from political, financial and environmental aspects. This article tries to illustrate a solution through a case study of Chu River in Wuhan. Through the framework of a Public Private Partnership (PPP), the Wuhan government and Wanda Group establish a partnership that manages the Chu River collaboratively and achieves a sustainable win-win development outcome. By analyzing the achievements and mistakes of this case, we hope to present some experiences of urban river management that can be applied in similar cases.
The Province of Pathumthani has played an important role in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR) in terms of its economics, industry, education, society, and culture in driving the urbanization process. However, the urban areas have been sprawling without control. Some urban areas have expanded to areas with risk of flooding. Especially, in the past 10 years, Pathumthani has suffered from more frequent and more severe floods, which might be affected by climate change. Together with inefficient climate change adaptation plans, the areas with risk of high impacts of flooding have expanded, making the urban settlements in Pathumthani face even higher impacts. The objectives of this research are to examine land use changes in order to understand the direction of urban expansion, to analyze the level of flood impact risk under climate change in Pathumthani by using Sieve Analysis and Geographic Information Systems, and to examine flood adaptation plans and the projections of urban development by using Scenario Analysis. The results show that the flood impact risk of Pathumthani has been higher under climate change, and the areas with flood impact risk have expanded, especially in the western side of Chao Phraya River which covers the majority of the areas in (1) Sam Khok District, (2) Mueang Pathum Thani District, and (3) Lat Lum Kaeo District. Moreover, the results suggest that the direction of urbanization is toward these three districts with high flood impact risk. Thus, climate change adaptation plans are essential for Pathumthani.
Delta’s are strategic, but at the same time vulnerable (Ke, 2014; Balica, Wright, & van der Meulen, 2012). This paper will explore the (spatial) consequences of urban pressure on Shanghai’s rural fringes, focusing on the case of Chongming Eco-Island, which belongs administratively to Shanghai. The current top-down policy to transform Chongming into an Eco-Island is not yet working as promised in various policies. Via field observations, interviews with more than twenty-five stakeholders, and policy reviews, this paper explores to what extent the plans of the national government on Chongming Eco-Island are being implemented and how it is possible to steer the developments into a more sustainable direction. To be able to mitigate the negative impacts for the natural and man-made environment a transition in spatial planning and design approaches is urgently needed. For this to occur, it has to be made clear which factors can explain the process of seemingly unbridled urbanisation at Shanghai’s fringes, and which role planning processes play in this development. The so-called Layers-Approach will be used to visualize this complexity of different spatial claims and interest. This approach has been proven to be useful as a tool for classification to be able to distinguish priorities and responsibilities for policy choices. Based on this, some recommendations will be made in this paper to steer the spatial development into a more resilient direction and hopefully mitigate the collateral damage for nature and society caused by current spatial planning and design practices.
Photovoltaic (PV) installation potential on residential building envelope in equatorial region was analysed by 3D insolation colour rendering employing BIM Revit solar analysis tool. Monthly global solar radiation calculation was employed to investigate solar potential in study case area. Actual energy consumption of residential sector was used as a base to predict energy demand for next 10 years. Predicted energy demand was then used to calculate the area needed for photovoltaic installation to balance future energy demand. The energy consumption by residential building was divided into five different installed electrical power capacities namely 450 Watt, 900 Watt, 1300 Watt, 2200 Watt and 3500-6600 Watt. Study results suggest that the potential location of photovoltaic panel installation on detached houses is on the roof, East, and West walls. Abundant solar energy in equatorial region was proved by high potential of PV energy generation 7 – 9 kW/m² for amorphous silicon, 17 – 18 kW/m² for polycrystalline silicon, and 19 – 23 kW/m² for monocrystalline silicon. The roof element alone can provide sufficient electrical energy generated by installed photovoltaic panels for the next 10 years. The area needed to supply 450W – 6600W installed power capacity were 13 – 75 m² for monocrystalline silicon, 23 – 120 m² for polycrystalline silicon, and 50 – 259 m² for amorphous silicon. To conclude, implementation of photovoltaic installations on residential buildings have a huge potential to secure not only recent energy consumption, but also future energy demand.
In order to analyse the relationship between street geometry and thermal environment in a city, this study collected data using five thermal comfort measuring instruments and applied computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to determine the relationship between street thermal environment (thermal comfort) and street geometry factors. According to this study’s results, street geometry, wind path, and waste heat of buildings all play very crucial roles with regard to effecting air temperature and thermal comfort conditions in the street. Meanwhile, the data from field work and CFD simulation confirmed that creating more wind paths and mitigating waste heat of buildings may be the best strategies for creating a comfortable thermal environment in the street.