Sustainable spatial planning can be discussed in three categories based on the definition of sustainability; economic, social and ecological (environmental) aspects of planning. Therefore, having the perspective of ecological planning is a prerequisite to understanding all of the anthropogenic activities related to spatial development and conservation, at the local to global scales. To promote ecological planning concepts in practical cases, however, often faces conflict with economic and social benefits. This is the reason why our society still requires further evidence regarding the relevance of ecological planning and its way to incorporate with the existing planning context. This may be the responsibility of all researchers, planners, developers and administrators who are working with or for our environment.
The administrator of a city park must respond to various needs pertaining to parks as a provider of social and ecological services for city sustainability, through both profitable and non-profitable services. Especially for a large city park, it is difficult to cover all requirements through a single administrative party. Thus, a joint venture (JV) constituting multiple parties is one promising way to administer a large city park. This study aims to clarify the effectiveness and tasks of a JV in the designated administration of city parks. The results of questionnaires received from 69 designated administrators of large city parks (43.7% cover rate in study targets) indicated that JVs tended to actively seek new relationships with parties that have never interacted before to realize better park administration. The merits of constituting a JV included complementing limited know-how of park administration and accumulating new know-how in constituent parties. On the other hand, some disadvantages were highlighted, such as an insufficient number of new projects created through collaboration and vertically divided administration due to role sharing. To cope with these problems, better communication among constituent parties and the establishment of a collaborative environment are necessary.
Appropriate microclimate design for urban parks is important, as it impacts on thermal comfort and thereby influences the utilization of outdoor spaces by the public. Modifying the vegetation arrangement can improve the microclimate, especially under hot season conditions. However, it is difficult to measure microclimatic variations in the individual components within a park. Therefore, we combined in-situ measurements and a three-dimensional microclimate model ENVI-met, to examine variations in the microclimate of an urban neighborhood park in Seoul, Korea. Different vegetation arrangements were investigated with respect to their effects on microclimate and thermal comfort on a typical summer day. The study showed that: 1) the simulated results of ENVI-met were similar to the observed data, with an index of agreement of 0.69–0.88; 2) green spaces with multi-layered and dense canopy cover provided the most comfortable conditions. However, the cooling efficiency of vegetation may decrease when the plantation is too dense; and 3) the main factor affecting thermal comfort in the hot season was mean radiant temperature. The findings of this study provide useful information to guide planning of vegetation arrangements in future urban park designs.
In China, at the beginning of the 21st century, conceptual planning became a popular type of strategic planning. However, it tended to address issues more relevant to development opportunities, industrial structures and spatial layouts, rather than the ideas of environment and ecology. Instead, Tongji University’s conceptual planning for the West Lake in Hangzhou, proposed in 2001, focused on the restoration of water environments. It regarded environmental improvement as a precondition for further development of tourism and the economy. Although this plan did not win the bid at the time, the lake’s ecological restoration from then onward incorporated all of its proposed concepts. As a result, the lake’s ecosystem has been restored successfully. This paper introduces the plan, discusses its main ideas and contextually reflects upon the implementation of conceptual ecological planning. In addition to the need to be connected to development actions or statutory planning, relying on adequate multidisciplinary technical support and rationally addressing local development contributes to best practices for ecological conceptual planning.
Wetlands are being negatively affected by various human activities such as reclamation, construction of levees, and conventional agricultural activities. Upo Wetland is the largest inland wetland in the Republic of Korea (hereinafter Korea). It has not only been designated as a wetland protection area by the Wetland Conservation Act of Korea but also registered as a Ramsar Site in 1998. In this study, cognitive mapping of the Upo Wetland and surrounding areas was applied to identify sensitive and vulnerable areas that should be carefully managed. The results of the cognitive mapping were compared with existing land-use zones of the wetland conservation area. Furthermore, this paper discusses the advantages of resident participation in cognitive mapping over conventional social and environmental analysis for landscape planning on other conservation areas.
This study focuses on the further well-coordinated development of farms and towns in Heilongjiang, China. In this research paper, we identified coordination problems and their causes through an analysis of the present status of farms and towns. For this purpose, a research framework was constructed using symbiosis theory, and a symbiotic development strategy was proposed to address the integration of the symbiotic unit, the optimization of the symbiotic interface, the selection of the symbiotic mode and the construction of the symbiotic environment.
Transition Area, Urban BR and sanjabunsuryungThe biosphere reserves (BRs) of the UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) aim at the successful coexistence of humans and nature. The existing BRs have worked with local people to create culture landscapes and conserve natural resources. The ideal BR models for areas undergoing climate change are cities within nature, and the areas that can be designated as BRs have natural and cultural landscapes. BRs comprise three areas, the core, buffer, and transition, in order to efficiently perform three functions, which are conservation, development, and logistical support. A transition area is where people earn an income from local businesses while effectively preserving their natural surroundings. When this area has a role in meeting the communal goals of residents by providing local resources and landscapes, it is appropriately managed and maintained. In addition, local products produced in BRs, which UNESCO believes are generated in excellent ecosystems, can be sold under the BR brand, contributing to residents’ incomes and local image. The Baekdudaegan mountain range (BDDG) is traditionally cherished as a symbol of the Korean peninsula and has enormous scientific value as an ecological repository. Additionally, the BDDG is considered a unique geographical recognition system referred to as sanjabunsuryung by the local area districts where Korean people have lived following a unique religious and historical culture. This study categorized types of transition areas in targeted areas with high potential for designation as a BR based on geographical characteristics. The developed index was supported by the Analytical Hierarchy Process method proposed by experts, and zoning of the BR was performed. Among the areas of the BR, the transition area was the focus of this study. This area was classified into three types, which were then subdivided. The watershed types were self-managed, neighborhood, and cooperative; the resident types were urban, relatively rural, and rural; and the local resources types were natural scenery and historical-cultural. A management plan is suggested regarding administrative districts, an urban BR, and relationships to other protected areas in the BDDG. In conclusion, the transition area of the BR was recognized as urban via the categorization process, and management of the BDDG should take a long-term approach.
To rapidly and clearly define the knowledge structure, research focus, and research trends in the field of ecological planning and design, the bibliometric method was combined with visualization tools to conduct a classified statistical study of 712 articles on ecological planning and design in the core database of Web of Science (WoS) from 1992 to 2017, making a contrastive analysis of information like the author, journal, research institution, country, keywords of those articles from three perspectives, namely co-authorship analysis, co-citation analysis, and co-words analysis. Three conclusions were drawn. First, academic exchanges and cooperation in the field of ecological planning and design should be strengthened between countries and scientific research institutions, especially China and its research institutions should actively participate in such exchanges and cooperation, and scholars are expected to seize the opportunities to cooperate with each other in research and practice in this field. Second, as developed European and American countries outweigh Asian countries in terms of research results and overall influence in the field of ecological planning and design, the popularity and influence of journals from Asian countries need to be improved, particularly as they study and report on ecosystem services. Third, as research on ecological planning and design become increasingly systematic, comprehensive, and humanistic, resilience has become a research hotspot in this field in recent years, thus enough attention should be paid to this aspect. Finally, the author hopes that the combination of visualization tools and the bibliometric method can foster enlightenment and research ideas among researchers and practitioners in this field.
Urban morphology should carefully consider climatic and behavioural aspects for hot arid climates. To put these insights into practice, this study aims to investigate different urban environments in the hot, dry city of Sidi Okba, Algeria (Biskra) during the summer season and defines the upper and lower limits of the thermal comfort range for the PET index. A second aim is to quantify the walkable environment and highlight the relationship between urban morphology and walking behaviour. The study was based on physical measurements combined with a questionnaire survey and a walking audit instrument. The findings from this research show that urban morphology, defined by building density, height/width (H/W) ratio and tree density, is significantly associated with the outdoor thermal conditions and potential pedestrians over short distances. The study also shows that in order to provide a comfortable climate and to increase pedestrian choice in the urban environment, the public space should include high building density, combined with deep streets with a high connection between them, and a large amount of vegetation along the lower parts of streets. This type of design has a positive effect on the walkability score of public spaces.
Focusing on trends in population and the causes of overpopulation, we analyse the distributional characteristics of the population in cities around the world. We analyse the countermeasures in spatial planning of various urban areas, which lays the foundation for our case study of Beijing. Beijing, which has unique attributes as the capital of China, faces challenges regarding population control and realization of the Main Functional Area Planning. We focus on the question of how spatial planning can help control population and the realization of urban functions in metropolises such as Beijing. We find that main functional area planning played a role in achieving the main functions and controlling the population of Beijing. Also, controlling the industrial structure is effective in changing population structure for metropolises such as Beijing. In addition, using guidance from spatial planning, we suggest establishing new urban areas or constructing new cities to form a multi-centre structure, to plan for old town renovation, and to improve the construction of the road infrastructure system.
For a long time, funeral facility sites and management by the local government in Taiwan have been lacking cross-regional resource integration and location based research. As a result, funeral facility locations have become inappropriate, excessive or insufficient in supply, etc. New Taipei City is located adjacent to Taipei City and Keelung City. The number of funeral facilities is as high as 264. How to plan funeral facilities appropriately and in cooperation with neighboring local governments has become an important issue for the New Taipei City government. This study reviews the theory of regional cooperation, and the main topic of the research is the public columbarium buildings and public cemeteries in New Taipei City. In addition, the service radius of funeral facilities in the three cities is studied to identify both service area and distribution, as while as using a time series model to estimate the supply and demand situation of public cemeteries and public columbarium buildings. It is intended that the result may be used to develop a regional cooperation strategy for future funeral facilities in New Taipei City. The conclusions are as follows: (1) the location of existing funeral facilities in New Taipei City are uneven, resulting in the residents' use of funeral facilities in other cities; (2) the funeral facilities' percentage of use is uneven in New Taipei City, with some regions facing imbalance between supply and demand by 2025; (3) the funeral facilities in New Taipei City can be developed according to four aspects and nine strategies through regional planning, renewed facilities, management systems and regional cooperation; (4) a public cemetery near Taipei City or Keelung City should be planned as a regional cooperative demonstration project; (5) the three cities should reduce or standardise the charges (such as exemption of cross-county fees) as a priority policy for encouraging regional cooperation.
This paper uses four years of ecosystem classification data, from 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015, to analyse the spatiotemporal variation characteristics of the ecosystems of counties and cities in the Min Delta urban agglomeration over 15 years across four aspects, including changes in the ecosystem area for each period, a transfer matrix of the counties and cities, the comprehensive dynamic ecosystem index, and the forces driving these changes. The results show that: (1) from 2000 to 2015, the total area of farmland, forest and shrub ecosystems in the Min Delta urban agglomeration decreased, while the total area of urban, wetland and grassland ecosystems has increased. There are spatiotemporal differences and patterns in the area change and transfer of various ecosystems. The series of scales and proportion of ecosystem types in the counties and cities of the Min Triangle show that there is a two-way transfer between farmland and urban ecosystems. In addition, there are spatiotemporal differences in the transfer of these two ecosystems. Forest ecosystems are transferred into farmland, urban and grassland ecosystems at different levels. In the eastern part of the Min Triangle, wetlands are mostly transferred to urban ecosystems, and the western regions are mostly transferred to forests and farmland. (2) For the comprehensive dynamic index of the Min Delta urban agglomeration, from 2000 to 2015, the degree of ecosystem dynamics was higher in each period than the previous, and the dynamics in the eastern and central parts were higher than those in the west and south for the same period. From 2000 to 2005, the comprehensive dynamic index was below 0.2%. The dynamic index of Longhai in Xiamen and Zhangzhou increased significantly from 2005 to 2010 from that of the previous period, and their values all exceeded 0.9%. From 2010 to 2015, the area with a large change in the dynamic index expanded to the east and south from the central area of Xiamen. The dynamics in the northwest did not sufficiently increase. (3) The GDP, value of agricultural production, forestry, and fisheries, secondary and tertiary industries, urbanization rate, and permanent residents are important factors influencing ecosystems. The driving effects of these socioeconomic indicators and urban population development have different degrees of significance on farmland, urban, forest and wetland ecosystems during different periods of the Delta's urban agglomeration.