The term “resilience”, and its panoply of derivations and conjugations, has known unusual popularity in recent times, often associated with sustainability. From a technical point of view, resilience is “the ability of a substance or object to spring back into shape; elasticity”, as per the Oxford Dictionary. In fact, the term is widely used in engineering and physics in order to describe the property of a material or system to quickly recover from a supposed condition of stress. But the first definition from the Oxford Dictionary, and apparently the most used, mainly referred to other meanings such as “the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties; toughness”. Therefore, resilience could be associated not only to physical properties, but virtually extended also to complex systems such as the economy, political institutions, ethics, welfare, health, social structures and, undoubtedly, cities and environment even beyond their physical appearance. Therefore, when the built environment is viewed as the highest and longest lasting achievement of human civilization, and the urban environment viewed as the summation of all tangible and intangible values connected with the progress of mankind, the terms “resilient” and “sustainable” sometimes come hand in hand, as if they would be interchangeable, and sometimes face discordant opposition (Garcia & Vale, 2017).
Critical infrastructure is an essential element of the operation of the city, such as for rapid transit, high-speed railway, local railways and other mass transit systems that must not only provide adequate service, but focus also on service quality improvement. These transportation station nodes have a single function or multi-target use, offering facilities for accessing transport, waiting, consumption, disaster prevention and other functions. When the city is an important node in disasters, such as floods, earthquakes, fire disasters, terrorist attacks and other disasters, it could seriously affect the city's security, especially through economic losses. In particular, emergency response and disaster recovery require the need to invest a lot in resources and adaptation. Therefore, urban facilities as nodes, space security, risk assessment and adaptation strategies are becoming important issues. This research regards the rail station as critical infrastructure and chooses stations, including railroads, high-speed railroads, and MRT, as nodes and explores the protective measures of stations facing natural disasters or manmade disasters. By collecting domestic and foreign hazard protection literature, this study has established public transport nodes’ risk communication and an adaptive behaviour framework. Based on empirical results, the study finds that the station management department in Taipei uses a systematic approach to prevent and respond to disasters, and may not provide information effectively to help passengers to take appropriate autonomous response measures. The study recommends different contingency measures at stations and public-private adaptation strategies. Commercial enterprises do not have business continuity planning for disasters, they still rely on the government and transport management department for information and emergency guidance. Through this research, some principles and strategies for future disaster planning and urban node management policies are provided.
Earthquakes and tsunami affecting Central Sulawesi, Indonesia have been recorded since 1927. The last tsunami in 2018 washed the shoreline for not more than five minutes. The objective of this study is to determine evacuation distance by using three different methods of network analysis: the current method (existing road network model), the proposed combined virtual network model, and the real-world evacuation route which is used as the standard parameter. This research includes four steps which are: building the three types of networks, determining the Origin and Destination (O-D) points, running the solver, and finally comparing the distances determined by each method. All of the network builds and analyses use the closest facility solver within the ArcGIS network analysis tools. With different characteristics, this study, carried out in Palu, Indonesia, shows that the evacuation distance method using a combined virtual network model is more closely resembles real-world evacuation distance; only one out of 20 routes which were analysed did not show the maximum performance compared to the real-world network model. On the other hand, the existing road network model shows two routes deviating from the route determined by the combined network model, meaning a weak performance of the method in measuring the evacuation distance.
Dubai’s 2020 Expo is expected to authenticate Dubai’s status as an emerging Arab city that displays modernity through iconic projects, sequences of fragmented urban enclaves, and engineered landscapes. The new Dubai Canal creates a navigational route that interlaces the historic centre with newly emerging artificial islands. The new Canal accentuates Dubai’s city image as an urban space found on technologically advanced infrastructural systems, and offers new panoramas of the city, enhancing its walkability, and creating public spaces along its banks. This current paper studies the urban changes and the city’s shift of focus manifest with these new waterfront developments. The attempt to unify the functions of the urban space, to live, work, move, and recreate in the same space is analysed as a departure from the fragmented practices existing until now. The recreation of historical forms and functions in a modern setup, and the attempt of Dubai to present itself as a global city through the use of architectural elements belonging to various cultures in order to appeal to different ethnicities are also discussed. Finally, in order to assess whether stagnation points would develop in the Canal which could jeopardize its function and appeal, a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model was utilized to predict the velocity and the circulation flow pattern in the canal, bends and lagoons.
The meaning about the origins of Al-Ain, the second largest city of Abu Dhabi Emirate in the UAE, resides in its name, which in Arabic means ‘The spring’. The presence of abundant groundwater has allowed human settlements since the Neolithic period, marking this city as one of the oldest settlements continuously inhabited in the Gulf region. Under the rule of Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nayan (1918-2004), Al-Ain received special attention in order to preserve its character and identity, due also to the presence of historical heritage which forms a strong sense of belonging for its community. With the establishment of the UAE in 1971, and the institution of its municipality council in 1992, a special ordinance fixed a strict limit on building height, giving also particular attention to conservation of the original landscape formed by the seven ancient oases of palm trees and their irrigation systems of aflaj, an ancient irrigation system common in most arid zones of the Middle East, Central Asia, and the Mediterranean. Despite all these efforts spent in order to keep its original identity, nowadays this approach appears to be scrutinised under the pressures for further expansion and innovation in response to an increasingly challenging economy. With an increasing acceleration in the process of expansion and renovation, most of Al-Ain’s urban fabric, realized after oil discovery in the 1960s, and still belonging to traditional typologies, has been replaced with new constructions inspired by different models, and new large developments have been laid out to cope with the increasing demand for dwellings. After recognition in 2011 of Al-Ain’s archaeological sites and oases as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the city’s popularity rose as a tourist destination and place of cultural interest but has revealed in the meantime its systemic fragility. This paper focuses on the process of urban growth according to the nature of place, which characterized Al-Ain’s history and currently forms the substrate of its cultural identity, and the mechanism of conflict/interaction between identity and innovation towards the definition of Al-Ain’s urban transformation and regenerative process.
Elementary schools are usually designated as evacuation shelters during a disaster. Based on this regulation, it is essential to plan the evacuation space in evacuation shelters, including for disaster management control centres, crisis centres, and so on. Since the primary function of the elementary school is for educational activities, it is also essential to consider the education space during the use as an evacuation shelter. When making an evacuation shelter management plan, it is necessary to examine the relationship between the evacuation space and the education space. Based on this relationship, it is possible to show the utilized area. In addition, it is essential to consider the process of operating an evacuation shelter from the occurrence of a disaster based on the stage of evacuation. This study aims to show a method of spatial planning based on floor area distribution and management depending on the stage of evacuation. This investigation confirms the priority level of activity spaces for both the evacuation and education needs. The research confirms the priority level of facilities (activity space needed) for planning the evacuation space and the education space. In addition, the research conducts classification of type by prioritizing activity space between the evacuation space and the education space. The result identifies four types of spatial planning and management methods based on stage of evacuation.
The role of architecture and architects in sustainable design has aroused interests and discussions in both academia and profession. Architectural design, especially in terms of climate adaptability and responsiveness have been seen a huge positive impact on building design, construction, use, operation and maintenance. Factors such as building layout, orientation, envelope, and interactions with both the technological and immediate natural and surrounding built environment, influence immensely both energy consumption as well as efficiency and comfortability for the human user.
With increasing environmental damage, passive architectural design strategies, particularly natural ventilation strategies, are essential techniques for architectural design to protect the environment. In order to improve human comfort and the health of the living environment, spaces for human activities are no longer bounded primarily by closed, indoor artificial spaces and have extended to open, semi-indoor naturally ventilated spaces. Singapore, located in the tropics, has a unique climate where the attention of the Singapore government to natural ventilation indicators in green building decision making, and application of natural ventilation tropical architecture, can be seen. This paper analyses the development of evaluation contents related to natural ventilation in the Singapore green building standard – Green Mark, studies typical naturally ventilated buildings and then proposes effective design strategies. The relationship between standards and cases are finally discussed to explore the differences from theory to practice, with a view to using suitable approaches and methods to encourage natural ventilation design, thus promoting the green building movement and achieving sustainability.
With the development of urban rail transit and the requirements of urban function, the subway station building complex mode retains important utility. While urbanization is advancing rapidly in China, the construction of rail transit is also advancing at an unprecedented speed, which also poses new challenges to the spatial design of urban rail transit buildings: on the one hand, the underground space in the metro station area often has low environmental quality, while on the other hand, transit buildings account for a large proportion of urban energy consumption, and performance-oriented sustainable design deserves attention. However, due to its complicated internal space and large flow of people, problems of space quality and comfort begin to emerge. As the space connecting urban railway traffic with building complexes in this type of integrated building, well spaces display the role of delivering air, light and heat within the space. Lying between external and interior environment, this space can utilize natural resources and the environment to adjust the indoor climatic environment and boost the quality of the space. However, well spaces in many urban subway station building complexes are confronted with such defects as inferior air quality, high wind speed and low comfort temperature. With five urban business complexes in large-scale rail transit junction stations in Beijing as an example, this research aims to conduct a comprehensive appraisal of the physical environment in well spaces during the coldest period in Beijing by assessing eight physical qualities, including air temperature, moisture, illuminance, carbon dioxide, PM2.5. PM10, HCHO and wind speed in each, gauging the physical environment of well spaces, and combining this with a questionnaire on satisfaction of people of different ages. As for issues arising from tests of the physical qualities and the questionnaire results, possible solutions for optimizing well spaces are proposed as a reference to optimize integrated design when combining urban railway transit and building complexes.
In comparison to many bicycle-friendly European cities, Indian cities are not popular for their bicycle-friendly environment. The absence of basic infrastructure is cited as the primary reason for such a situation. This study aims to understand this phenomenon at a micro scale by comparing two European cities, namely Amsterdam and Copenhagen and two Indian cities, Chandigarh and Noida. This research uses the ‘comparative case study' approach to evaluate two planned Indian cities against these two successful European examples. The purpose of the study is to understand Indian people's reluctance for cycling through a comparative spatial study. With an emphasis on cycling, the new planned cities in India supposedly provide more opportunities to cycle to its citizens. It is assumed that people choose to cycle in a city under various conditions. These conditions have been assessed by identifying suitable indicators and collecting data through a secondary survey. These indicators are grouped together in three attributes - physical, environmental and social. The collected data from each city is compared and analysed to comprehend the existing situation and draw appropriate conclusions. This study highlights many non-conventional parameters to understand people's reluctance to cycle in the Indian cities. The research will help to understand the limitations in Indian cities through a comparative analysis of successful European cases.