Many factors can contribute to sustainable transport, for instance green/greener transport modes, spatial design and connectivity among transport infrastructure, land use or urban form, travel behaviour, etc. In the first paper of this issue, Chen and Felkner (2020) conduct an extensive review on the relationship between sustainable transport and urban form, and point out that many researchers have only discussed relationships between sustainable transport with individual elements of urban forms, without considering the interrelationships among the elements of urban forms such as population density, concentration within the urban-rural context, and land use mix. To fill this gap, the authors perform robust regressions on sustainable transport indicators and urban form elements using the case of the U.S. State of Florida. They found that the interaction effects among urban form elements show in a “threshold, negative-to-positive” synergy, which implies that certain expected effects from urban form elements on sustainable transport outcomes are conditional depending on levels of other urban form elements. Although the paper was not able to discuss interaction effects among all the elements, the argument is justified, the analysis is acceptable and the paper raised a research question that needs wider attention.
The relationship between urban form and sustainable transportation has been extensively explored in the existing literature, and it is generally accepted that an urban form characterized by higher density, mixed land use pattern and higher accessibility could shorten travel distance and encourage people to choose alternative non-auto travel modes, which in turn reduces the fuel consumption and associated GHG emissions. However, the extensive research on urban form and sustainable transportation has only identified significant correlations between individual urban form variables, such as urban density, land use mix or road connectivity and the one or multiple sustainable transportation outcomes, such as travel mode or vehicle miles travelled (VMT), but very limited empirical studies have been identified to examine the interaction effects that may exist between the urban form attributes. This paper proposes the hypothesis that interaction effects exist between urban form attributes when examining their influences on sustainable transportation. Taking all cities in Florida, U.S. as a case, the interaction effects in the relationship between urban form and sustainable transportation are tested with empirical data. The regression results verified our hypothesis that density shows “threshold negative-to-positive” synergy with other urban form variables, indicating that certain theoretical correlations between urban form variables and sustainable transportation outcomes are conditional depending on the interactions between or among urban form attributes. The results may expand the theoretical framework on the topic of land use and transportation and has considerable policy implications for planning support systems.
To explore the impact of geographical location, built environment, public transportation service and individual socioeconomic attributes on commuting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, a survey was conducted in 27 residential compounds of Shanghai in 2016. In this paper, commuting distance was calculated according to a Baidu map application programming interface (API). CO2 emissions were calculated based on the mode used in each segment of commuting and distance travelled. Through the use of a multiple linear regression model, factors of personal socioeconomic attributes, including gender, occupation and apartment area, were significant to commuting CO2 emissions. In terms of the public transport service, the distance from compounds to the nearest metro station was found to be a significant factor on CO2 emissions, whereas the built environment, such as parking space and employment density, had a weak impact in our study. In addition, even when living near a metro station, the top 20% of travellers’ CO2 emissions can account for approximately 80% of the total CO2 emissions. Hence, policies to reduce those people’s commuting CO2 emissions are worth further exploring.
Bicycle sharing systems (BSSs) have attracted worldwide attention as representatives of the new, green public transportation systems, and many types of research have examined the topic. However, the research so far is relatively scattered, because BSS has undergone several technical upgrades and expansions, and the content of some articles may no longer apply to today's society. Therefore, it is necessary to review and summarise the research on BSSs so far. This article aims to collect and summarise the development, characteristics, and impact of BSSs through an extensive review of relevant literature. The article collects and analyses existing academic literature, online materials, and official reports. It is found that BSSs attract people with the same characteristics, and Western and Eastern users have different characteristics; some common factors promote people's use of BSSs in different regions. The government or enterprises introduce BSSs for different purposes: for reducing congestion or for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Most of the impacts caused by BSSs are positive, but some impacts, such as model substitution and environmental benefits, do not seem to achieve the expected goals. Through a literature review, this article provides references for people who are interested in conducting further research in this area in the future.
Formulating a transport master plan for a regional city in a developing country can be a challenging task. Regional cities are often lacking financial resources or have limited expertise in the field of transport. Consequently, they are more likely to experience transport problems as they undergo expansion. The tradition of transport planning for regional cities in Thailand began as recently as 1994 with the master plan for Chiang Mai city. Since then, there has been a broad implementation of transport planning across the country, driven by the Office of Traffic and Transport Policy and Planning (OTP). As a result, most Thai cities now have a transport master plan. In this paper, we describe Thailand’s process in formulating and implementing its master plans across the regional cities. We provide three case studies to illustrate the process in practice. The study reveals some lessons learned that could be useful to identify critical planning and governance mechanisms for other developing countries, especially those in the same region, such as Vietnam, Cambodia, and Myanmar.
Transport poverty is not only a term used to accentuate the fact that some groups of population in the society are unable to commute as they need, but the concept is being studied by researchers to accurately locate and identify the disadvantaged, who would need to be considered in transport policy and decision making. Due to its complexity, conceptualization and measurement of transport poverty have not always been clear and comprehensive. As measurement of transport poverty usually requires a specific set of data, developing countries are generally regarded as potentially having insufficient data. Thailand’s social and economic context imply that the issue has been present in the country while availability of data required for its measurement is unconfirmed. This paper reviews and discusses how the concept has been defined and measured by some previous research as well as availability of Thailand’s data applicable for various types of measurement. The results show that existing data would permit certain types and degrees of measurement; nonetheless, a more precise and accurate measurement of the issue would require more complete data sets.
Space syntax starts from the ontology of space to quantify the space and uses mathematical logic to reveal and describe the logic of the space structure. However, the application of space syntax analysis to museums in China has rarely been explored. In light of this, this study employs space syntax to analyse the Gulangyu Organ Museum (Xiamen, China) and uses the topological depth, visual graph analysis, and agent simulation to describe the structure of the museum space. Accordingly, several suggestions are proposed, including rearranging the layout of the museum's functions and transforming the museum from functional space to experience space. This study can serve as a valuable reference for the application of space syntax in the design and optimization of space design and functional layout. We believe that the findings of this study can also be applied to other cultural institutions (e.g., galleries) with similar characteristics.
This paper systematically reviews the current approaches of assessing sustainability of Neighbourhood-level Urban Communities (NLUCs) to identify existing dimensions of sustainability including missing and neglected ones. The authors have adopted a systematic literature review (SLR) approach to provide an overview of state-of-the-art literature in urban sustainability assessment and measurement. The novelty of the content analysis is that it has been accomplished using an automated process of keyword extraction from the systematically selected literature using a Python-implementation of the popular Rapid Automatic Keyword Extraction (RAKE) algorithm. Finally, the paper proposes a pentagram that successfully incorporates five dimensions of sustainability: environmental, economic, social, institutional and cultural, with an overarching component of innovation likely to have an impact on each due to technological advancements and future trends. The outcome of this model will be a basic framework within which indicators can be assigned for assessing the sustainability of the NLUCs.
Public bicycle sharing systems for daily use have been effective for increasing cycling in China, which can significantly ease traffic congestion and the production of toxic gasses. Encouraging the development of bicycle transportation has become an important part of cities' sustainable development policies. This paper explains the relationships among public bicycle trips, public infrastructure, road characteristics, the built environment, and temporal variations. The study area is the Xiasha Education District, which is located in the east of Hangzhou City, China. Using data on the Hangzhou Public Bicycle system, we utilized Pearson correlation analysis and multiple linear regression modelling to analyse how the variables affect public bicycle trip production for different land uses. This paper also analyses the temporal variations for hourly trip production for three land uses. The results show that public infrastructure and road characteristics significantly affect public bicycle trips. In addition, the effects of temporal variation vary across different land uses. Our findings will be helpful for planners and engineers to improve their understanding of public bicycle production.