Purpose: Several studies have been conducted on the concept of Bugis community house construction to understand its macro- and micro-cosmology. This study was, however, conducted to complement the multi-perception research on the relationship between architecture and local wisdom by disclosing the formation of residential space plans. This involved the use of the Bugis house as the subject and the application of the horizontal and vertical philosophies’ perspectives based on the anatomical dimensions of a lying human body as its traditional architectural uniqueness. Research Design & Methodology: The study was conducted qualitatively in Talungeng Village, Bone Regency, Indonesia, for a period of one year, 2018–2019, using the case study approach, phenomenology, and ethnography model. Data were collected through several eligible informants and analyzed using the Discovering Cultural Themes method by associating studies with architecture. Results & Findings: This study showed the horizontal spatial organization and relations in the Bugis house plan derive from the philosophy and function of human body parts in a lying position, which is believed to be a means to provide protection and comfort for residents, while the vertical aspect involves the use of the house frame as the central pillar in proportion to the whole structure. The adoption of the human body as the framework is usually to provide mutual support for the building structure and to ensure it has enough strength to mitigate against earthquakes, floods, and strong winds.
Urban growth patterns are a reflection of how urbanization is affected by physical geography as well as by the economic, social, and natural factors of individual cities. Therefore, an analysis of any urban growth pattern triggered by these factors by using measurable variables can make a significant contribution towards the determination of future spatial growth strategies. This paper aims to characterise and evaluate the urban growth pattern of Antalya, a coastal city in Turkey, that occurred between 1987 and 2016. To achieve this, a multi-temporal analysis of satellite images was carried out to determine the city’s urban growth patterns in 1987, 2000, and 2016, and spatial growth indices were then used to identify three urban growth types – sprawl, infill, and leapfrog. The results clearly show that the amount of built-up area in Antalya increased considerably after 2000, and is estimated to have grown by a factor of eight over the period covered by this study, predominantly through the processes of sprawl and leapfrog development.
Climate-related disasters such as floods and tidal floods impact livelihood systems in coastal areas everywhere, particularly in developing countries, resulting in a certain degree of livelihood vulnerability. In this paper, we examine the spatial exposure and livelihood vulnerability level of Tegal, a city in Central Java, Indonesia. Data were collected from 100 household samples distributed in the study area. Two types of assessment were performed: a spatial assessment with distance analysis and a vulnerability assessment using the Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI). The results of the study show that 33.80% of the settlement area and 22.25% of the fishery area are vulnerable to tidal floods. Climate-related disasters also threaten 32.20% of the households sampled, whose members work mostly as fishermen and rely on coastal resources for their livelihood. A key finding of the study is that the community is highly vulnerable with a low adaptive capacity level. This calls for more decisive policy interventions to enhance the community’s adaptive capacity and reduce its exposure level.
Customary land tenure associated with land administration systems have begun to receive attention through research. A recent study discusses the practice of land release to gain insight into the forces that underpin transformation of customary land rights. However, few studies address the ability to negotiate and adapt to customary land tenure. This study fills this gap, especially the utilisation of Bengkok land as village-owned land and explores the knowledge that drives changes in customary land management rights in Indrokilo sub-village. Data were collected through surveys and interviews addressed to respondents as Bengkok land users and key actors. The results of the study indicate that the change in Bengkok Bayan’s land management rights to collective rights of farmer groups has been affected by four conditions, namely: the vacancy of the village official (Bayan), the village land leasing system, sanitation programme socialisation, and resident participation. The aspirations of the farmer groups are accommodated by the village government in the form of a village head's decree and the terms of land rent compensation. Adaptation of farmers, farmer groups and village government is manifested in the form of land use arrangements as Kandang kawasan (cattle pen), separation of cattle pens and houses, as well as Bengkok land rental systems. Changing the Bengkok land management rights for communal interests requires legal strengthening through regional regulations in order to recognise the existence of farmer groups, promote justice, and reduce poverty for the sustainability of suburban area development.
There has been a growing interest in finding mitigation measures for urban heat islands and urban pollution islands that focus mainly on urban landscape mechanisms. However, relatively little research has considered spatial non-stationarity and temporal non-stationarity, which are both intrinsic properties of the environmental system, simultaneously. At the same time, the relevance of and differences between the thermal environment and air pollution has also been rarely discussed, and both issues are of great importance to urban planning. In this study, which is aimed at improving urban ventilation to reduce the urban heat island and urban pollution island effects, an urban ventilation potential evaluation, land surface temperature time-series clustering and air pollution source identification are comprehensively applied to identify the operational areas, compensation areas and ventilation corridors in Xiangyang, China, thus bridging the gap between academic research and urban planning. The specific research areas include: (1) defining the operational areas for urban ventilation corridor planning through an urban ventilation potential evaluation featuring urban morphology indicators, land surface temperature time-series clustering with k-means and an urban air pollution source diffusion analysis via the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) methods; (2) identifying urban cold islands through land surface temperatures and delimiting the compensation areas in urban ventilation corridor planning; (3) designating urban ventilation corridors through an urban ventilation potential evaluation and computational fluid dynamics (CFD); and (4) improving urban ventilation corridor planning through defining operational areas, compensation areas and ventilation corridors as well as proposing corresponding control measures.
A large body of research has focused on the various social, environmental and economic ways in which urban density might affect cities. When considering density as one of the elements of urban form, the measurements that studies usually apply, such as net or gross building density, do not have any link to the design of the built form. This paper argues that the same building density can yield different design layouts, thereby emphasising the need for developing other measurements of density in close relationship with design factors. To demonstrate this, several cases with various ranges of density (low, medium and high) were explored through spatial analysis and categorised in three clusters for further study with statistical tests. The results confirm meaningful differences between cases with the same density but different spatial design characteristics. The outcomes also indicate that the category of the cases based on conventional density measures, namely population density and building density (which are commonly used in urban studies), fail to capture design differences when density ranges differ. These results should draw attention to this phenomenon, which appears worthy of further investigation in future studies.
Advanced technologies and big data have brought new visions and methods to urban planning research. Based on the Baidu heat map and POI data of two typical days (a weekend day and a workday) in 2018, this paper analyses the spatial and temporal aggregation patterns of crowds in the urban centre of Wuhan using ArcGIS. Aggregation patterns are defined by the intensity of population activities and the places where crowds gather. In terms of time, the daily change of population aggregation intensity is studied by counting the heat value of 24 moments captured throughout the day. The results show that on rest days, people prefer to travel around noon and in the afternoon, reaching the highest peak of the day around 15:00, while on workdays, residents' activities are affected by commuting, with obvious 'morning rush hours' and 'evening rush hours'. Firstly, the spatial correlation between the density of POI distribution and the degree of population aggregation has been studied by the spatial coupling relationship between the Baidu heat map and POI data. Secondly, the index of correlation between the aggregation of different POIs and population (ICPP) are mentioned to analyse the purposes and the degrees of aggregation during weekend and workday rush hours. Based on the ICPP, we analyse activities from three aspects: the different ICPPs between the workday and the weekend; the different ICPPs between the morning, afternoon and evening; and the different ICPPs among different POIs.