Health studies are important for the evaluation of health services and the improvement of poor conditions as well as for the determination of the development levels of countries. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the spatial patterns of infant mortality, which is considered an indicator of health conditions, in Turkey between 2011 and 2016. The existence of global autocorrelation was first studied using the infant mortality rate, the standardised mortality ratio, and the infant mortality rate which was corrected by Bayes smoothers. Local spatial autocorrelation analysis was performed to determine statistically significant hot spots or clusters in infant mortality. It was determined that the spatial distribution between 2011 and 2016 was not coincidental, and aggregation tendency and spatial dependence were observed in the data. According to local spatial statistics, spatial differences of South-eastern Anatolia and Eastern Anatolia regions appeared in Turkey in terms of infant mortality. Furthermore, the factors related to the infant mortality rate were considered. It was found that the age of marriage for women, the net schooling rates of females in secondary education, the number of midwives, and the gross domestic product (GDP) were related to infant mortality rates. It is important to determine different associated factors in the provinces with high infant mortality rates found in this study and to develop an understanding of what can be done to prevent infant mortality in the future. In the South-eastern Anatolia and Eastern Anatolia regions, it is necessary to produce and implement policies with the scope of reducing the infant mortality rate.
In general, urban social sustainability has received little recognition in built environment disciplines. To comprehend the social dimensions of sustainable urban design, an understanding of urban planning features is required which takes into consideration the engagement of the local community. The article focuses on the impact that intense sustainable urban transformation has on localities in East Asia and Europe. The comparative research is based on a study of four large-scale urban sustainable cases in Northeast Asia (eco-cities “Sino-German Ecopark” in Qingdao, China; and “Pangyo” in Seongnam, Korea) and Europe (sustainable neighbourhoods “Vauban” in Freiburg, Germany; and “Hammarby Sjöstad” in Stockholm, Sweden). The research focuses on the connections and interactions between sustainable urban design and aspects of urban social sustainability. The paper represents an effort to unravel the social dimensions of eco-cities / sustainable neighbourhood projects by investigating how sustainable urban development is articulated and manifested in Europe and Northeast Asia. The final research output consists of the identification of sustainable urban design elements (e.g. community centres, plazas, parks and green zones, etc.) and policies (e.g. affordable housing accessible, public transportation, diversity of housing typologies, etc.) that could enforce the “urban social sustainability”. The conclusive analysis offers a source of inspiration and potential policy orientations for cities that are in the process of sustainable transformation.
Since the reform and opening-up of China, the nation’s rural development has been accompanied by a series of land reform policies, largely concerning agricultural land, homestead land and rural construction land. Have rural land reform policies achieved their original objectives and contributed to the socio-economic and spatial development of rural China? To answer these questions, this paper examines the case of Qidu Town of Suzhou, Jiangsu Province and conducts a three-step analysis of the effectiveness of both national- and local-level rural land reform policies. It first reviews the policies to clarify their economic, social and spatial objectives. It then quantitatively analyses the economic, social and spatial performance of these policies in Qidu Town since 1998; this analysis is performed with economic, social and land-use data and quantitative-analysis methods. Finally, it assesses the policies’ effectiveness by comparing their objectives with the results of the quantitative analyses. It concludes that at both the national and local levels, the effectiveness of land reform policies has varied across different periods, across different measures, and between one another. The reason for this variation rests predominantly on the attitudes of the affected villages and villagers. By taking the town, China’s basic administrative unit, as the research object and bringing spatial performance into policy effectiveness, this research seeks to develop a methodology for objective and accurate assessments of the effectiveness of rural land reform policies.
A design shift of houses from traditional to modern is not only driven by personal preferences about modern living and the need for new spaces, but also about the availability and durability of building materials. Changes in building materials, especially on the roof, will modify the thermal conditions in the interior of the building. This study compared the thermal performance of resistive and reflective building materials in tropical coastal areas. An empirical study was carried out to measure external and internal thermal conditions in two vernacular houses located in the coastal area of Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. The sample houses were traditional raised floor houses which present two different types of roofing material, namely sago thatch roof (resistive material) and corrugated zinc sheet roof (reflective material). The outcomes indicated that the resistive material has more advantages in controlling the internal conditions than the reflective material. This state is due to its porous material characteristics which can supply a low air temperature to the house and release air humidity to the external environment.
This research is aimed at understanding the factors affecting whether residents choose residential locations near transit stations as well as the rail service use of residents within 3 km of a station. The research outcomes are expected to contribute insight, for urban planners and real estate developers, in particular, into important factors regarding increasing the number of station-area residents who use rail transit in their daily travel. This research, which collected the data from a questionnaire survey, found that among 624 respondents in total, 68% are station-area residents who live within 1 km of a station, while 32% are residents who live far from a station (1–3 km). A hierarchical binary logistic regression model is used to describe the factors affecting the choices of residents to live within 1 km of stations as well as rail service use in general. The main variables used in the model estimation are socioeconomics, travel behaviours, workplace location characteristics and the proximity of residences to outdoor activities in a transit-oriented development.
Consideration of the five senses and emotions is not well explored in the urban environment. Different fields deal with the influence of the physical environment on human experience. However, the role of the multi-sensory experience and affectivity in selecting the itinerary for pedestrian mobility is not yet well studied. Several methods have been proposed to evaluate the correlation between pedestrian movement and the environmental configuration, where the visual parameter is the main determinant. Given that other senses could be used to select any itinerary, since the urban environment is perceived at a multisensory level, the aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between people's multisensory experience and their navigation in an urban environment in terms of itinerary choice. This study is carried out on the streets linking the city centre to the seafront in Bejaia, Algeria. The investigation was based on qualitative and quantitative methods. The former consists of the organised walk with running commentary technique. The latter consisted of a syntactic analysis of the street pattern. The results show that people choose their itinerary not only on the visual aspect created by the spatial configuration, but also on several variables related to the affectivity and multi-sensory experiences of the urban environment. The findings will be discussed with regard to their usefulness for the design and development of urban publics spaces.