Demographic growth and the continued evolution of cities call for a new approach to better observe and research our understanding of cities. A new science based on big data, urban modelling and network theory is emerging, providing a different and rather new perspective for planners and decision-makers so that they might learn about both current and future cities. In this article, the new science is briefly introduced from four aspects: Aggregate dynamics; Form and function; High frequency cities; and New tools & techniques for planning. Examples are given to show how this new science illustrates the real-time city, as well as the structure and functional boundaries of a city, while future practice and further exploration of this new science in urban planning and policy making are explored.
The purpose of spatial planning is to create a more reasonable land use and improve its functional relationships, balancing the two needs of environmental protection and development to achieve the goal of sustainable development of nature, society and economy. People have the most important roles in space, because spatial planning pursues people-oriented outcomes, creating a sustainable and beautiful local life as the goal, integrating the natural environment, economic efficiency, social equity, land use, and so on. Additionally, the planning constitutes a dynamic system with balanced development. To achieve the above goals, it is necessary to integrate the power of multiple people to form both local communities and external communities. To maintain local sustainability, the local communities need external resources dependant on external communities. Furthermore, local communities also need to keep discovering local characteristics, attracting the external community to continue paying attention to local sustainable development.
Characterized by rich natural resources, pristine and unspoiled landscapes, Colombia has never fully developed its eco-tourism potential mainly due to a complex interrelation of factors, such as geographic and eco-systemic complexity, a deficit in infrastructure, state oversight, social-economic issues, and, to a large extent, its five-decade armed conflict. Progress and development have mainly been focused on the Caribbean coast and its main ports and some specific spots in the mountains, where the main capital and other important cities are located, but the plains (llanos) and the jungles, particularly remote regions, have been marginalized and prioritized less, having little or non-existent infrastructure. The primary focus of the study is the Piedemonte llanero of the eastern mountain ranges, located in the Orinoquia region. The framework of this research will discuss the theoretical approach for ecotourism and the different elements used for the definition of landscape patterns: the corridor, and those to be applied in terms of policies to the areas of study. This paper, in particular, aims to examine the landscape component in relation to the environmental factor of the areas in focus which are Monterey, Casanare and Lejanias, Meta. After some visits, recognizing these as attractive study cases, and a detailed planimetric study, the importance of the landscape in relation to the existing series of spatial patterns of Piedmonte llanero, where ecotourism could become an opportunity for the local communities along the jungle’s marginal road, a transnational connection, is recognized. The first case to be studied is the whole hydrological complex of the Algarroba waterfalls in Monterey and the Guejar River in Lejanias, Mesetas, describing, characterizing and comparing two nodes of interest along the route. After this research, a conclusion is drawn to compare and highlight the role of the different landscape patterns and the possibility to use other tools in the planification of the territory.
Community participation is the foundation of a community’s healthy environment and sustainable development. Social housing can provide people without their own homes and underprivileged groups with more secure conditions to live and work and thereby realize housing justice and reduce social vulnerability. In terms of community management, residents’ engagement in community affairs can dramatically reduce the subsequent burden of environmental maintenance and community management, which encourage residents in the community to actively pass on the habit of maintenance and to collectively create resilient and sustainable communities. However, lease term restrictions in Taiwan’s social housing policy stipulates that ordinary tenants can only rent the house for 6 years at a maximum and tenants with special conditions for 12. This study attempts to understand whether lease term restrictions affect residents’ willingness to participate in community affairs. In addition, we also try to find out how to motivate residents to participate in community construction under the existence of lease term restrictions. The scope of this study focuses on citizens who qualified to rent social housing in the Greater Taipei area (including Taipei City and New Taipei). We designed a questionnaire for our target audience, tested its reliability and validity and picked random-selected samples to finish the questionnaire. Analyzing from the perspective of Egoism, we find out that the result of this research shows that residents do not commonly avoid participation in community affairs. Although lease term restrictions do have some effects on residents' willingness to participate, they are still willing to participate since issues of safety and environmental quality have a direct impact on their lives. However, the residents’ chief consideration is how time spent in participation affects one’s time. Also, though substantial returning benefit is not the main consideration when deciding whether to participate, it does effectively boost residents’ willingness. Furthermore, community member relations is found to have a positive correlation with their willingness to participate.
Since 1999, the ‘Community Planner System’ in Taipei has mainly used community awareness to intervene in communities and to strengthen and implement local autonomy and governance through the integration of community differences. Community awareness positively influences the construction of resilient communities, especially when a community encounters environmental distress or various disorderly phenomena. This case study focuses on community planners in Datong District stationed at ‘Changji Corner’ and the community members they serve. A quantitative study was conducted using a structural questionnaire. The purposes of the study were (1) to understand the relationship among community awareness, involvement and autonomy and (2) to determine whether community autonomy is affected by community planners. All hypotheses were accepted: community identity and participation improve community autonomy, and local community planners significantly and positively impact community identity, involvement and autonomy. However, some values indicate that the public’s awareness of community planners is weak, which in turn affects willingness to participate in community activities. The unclear positions and ambiguous duties of community planners can affect the construction of resilient communities.
This discussion aims to find a sustainable community-based development model through a multi-stakeholder participatory approach. Rural planning in Indonesia has undergone significant changes in the last decade. Community-based development and participation is now an established agricultural development planning policy. Community participation produces planning and design decisions based on community needs, priorities, and affordability which often results in better and more realistic designs, plans, and programmes. In the development of kampung tourism, implementing community participation can reduce cost, increase the use of local resources, and socially empower the community. Kampong Grangsil is a hamlet of hardworking and civic-minded flower farmers. These farmers and members of their community organized and developed their village into a tourism destination that they named Kampoeng Boenga Grangsil (KBG) – Grangsil Flower Village. The high level of community participation as well as a Villages Partner Development Programme, made possible through the collaboration of village governments and university research teams, succeeded in making KBG into what it is today. Mentoring, through in-situ assistance (in Grangsil) and ex-situ assistance (at the Campus and Woodcraft Gallery), was carried out to strengthen resources. Throughout the mentoring programme, the research team acted as both a mediator and facilitator for developing Grangsil into an environmentally-friendly tourism destination. The role and involvement of mediators in the participatory development process increased the ability of communities to organize and build sustainable villages.
Spatial plans are key instruments in directing future developments and reducing a city’s flash flood risk. This study conducts a surface runoff simulation using SWAT analysis in the Kedurus catchment area. SWAT analysis is a hydrological analysis to measure surface runoff from precipitation with consideration of land uses, soil types, climatic data, topography and related infrastructure systems. Based on the simulation, four sub-catchment areas are currently experiencing flash flooding. Surabaya’s detailed spatial plan (RDTR) could reduce the total flood volume in the city by fifty-one per cent if all measures (drainage and other infrastructures) in the plan are implemented successfully. Nevertheless, the implementation of the measures is still questionable due to limited budget and land acquisition. In the case of plan failure, the planned developments will cause higher surface runoff, putting Surabaya is at higher risk of flooding. Therefore, Surabaya needs to diversify its flash flood risk reduction approach to ensure that the plan will achieve a low-risk city in the future.
With the rapid development of China's urbanization, the gap between the development level of China's cities and villages is becoming more and more obvious. The rapid increase in the urban population has aggravated the utilization of urban land resources. While rural areas have a large number of residential land, the population is decreasing year by year, which presents great potential for development. How to coordinate the relationship between urban and rural areas has become an important issue in China. In recent years, the Chinese government has made a series of attempts in the peri-urbanization areas between cities and villages. In 2017, based on the project named New Pastoralism, the central government in China put forward a planning mode named Rural Complex, which retains the local residents and forms a community to attract new residents, also with the aid of tourism to attract consumers from the city. As a pilot project, New Pastoralism has been operating for several years. As a pilot scheme, it brings some good effects but it also has some defects, especially in its management. Meanwhile there are few studies on its management, operation, and its effects on urban-rural development in China.
This paper will take the New Pastoralism project as an example, studying its defects as well as the positive influence of its planning, construction, operation, and management modes based on the related policies, to discusses whether the Rural Complex can play a positive role in coordinating urban-rural development in China.