Traffic congestion comes from three phases order: the free travel phase, the meta-stability phase,and the traffic jam phase. Therefore, it can be considered that if the meta-stability phase can be detected, forecasting traffic jams becomes possible. This paper proposes a driver model that forecasts traffic congestion based on changes in driving behavior and that does not rely on traffic flow monitoring infrastructure. As a result of evaluation in driving simulators, it was understood that the distribution of steering and throttle input frequency changes based on changes in the travel phase. It is possible to distinguish these changes using neural networks or support vector machines,and it is possible to make this into a driver model that forecasts traffic congestion.
Consumer-generated medias (CGMs) such as weblogs, online social networks and photo-sharing services getting to be mainstream internet services. On CGMs, users generate and publish various content, and other users review them. Internet live-broadcasting (ILB) services attract attention as a novel type of CGM services for broadcasting movie and voice in real time. And wide variety of content are circulated on ILB. Evolutional CGMs have emergent nature among users. From viewpoint, the paper analyzes users' psychological factors and their behaviors on the ILBs．The authors conducted a web-based survey, and ethnographical study of two users．As the result，the authors found that the users prefer to use real-time communication tools on internet live broadcasting services which have real-time content．In addition，though broadcasters desire to be viewed by the general public，they choose several styles for advertisements of their broadcasting．
A SPAN filter is a nonlinear filter that can modulate the gain and phase of input signals independently, and it is expected that the feedback system that contains the SPAN filter can show better control performance than linear systems. However, it is very difficult to design it so that the design specifications such as overshoot and settling time are satisfied simultaneously. Since the SPAN filter contains three design parameters, drawing the permissible sets of the parameters is suitable for the understanding of the solution set. In this paper, a parameter space design method by volume rendering is proposed, where volume data is obtained by calculating the performance indexes for grid points in the parameter space. This method is applied to SPAN filter design, and its usefulness is shown numerically.