Magnetic force acting on the toner from the magnetic latent image in the black image area and white image area was analyzed. Simulative calculations were made using electromagnetic field simulator with finite element method and proximate equations. Experiment was also made using the enlarged model. In the toner arrangement model used here a toner is placed on the center of the transition region and the other toners are placed side by side. Distance of 1/2 dot between the adjoining transition regions in the recording medium was allocated to form one dot black image and the distance of 3/2 dots between the adjoining transition regions was allocated to form one dot white image. It is found that the size of the one dot black image and that of the one dot white image on recording paper become almost equal.
A model for electrostatic discharge in the toner layer during the transfer process is proposed. The present model, which is one-dimensional with air gaps between toner, OPC and transfer medium, calculates amount of charge transferred to toner due to electrostatic discharge at air gap using the Paschen's law. The model is simple and can represent the decrease in transfer efficiency due to excessively biased charge, an increase in toner charge after transfer. The dependence of transfer efficiency on the amount of charge of the first toner in multi-layer transfer process can also be calculated. The calculation results of multi-layer transfer process predict that electrostatic discharge occurs mainly in the air gap between the first-toner and OPC and an air gap between second-toner and transfer medium. These results demonstrate that an estimation of transfer efficiency by using with the present model is valid.
With aim of preventing damage to human health caused by environmental pollution from chemical substances, Notification Systems of New Chemical Substances have been implemented in nine countries. Manufacturers or importers are required to notify new chemical substances in advance of the manufacture and the import provided that the new chemical substances are not listed in the existingchemical substances Inventory. As notification systems in major nations, the following regulations are outlined with points to note for researchers in business corporations in this article: Japan;The Chemical Substances Control Law (Law concerning the evaluation of chemical substances and regulation of their manufacture, etc.) and Industrial Safety and Health Law Article 57-3 (Investigation of Toxicity of Chemical Substances) China;Provisions on the Environmental Administration of New Chemical Substances EU;the REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals) Regulation
Japanese environmental regulation is classified roughly into the law such as environmental laws and self-imposed restraint such as eco-label. Environmental laws are umbrella structure to assume Environmental Basic Law a top, and it is classified roughly as the general structure and the characteristic for the individual article. Eco-label is classified into three types by the indication method, and is defined each by ISO regulation. This report is commented on the environmental law system of Japan and the system of eco-label, then, introduces the law on promoting green purchasing and Eco Mark as the latest example.
As computers or cellular phones widely spread, a large amount of electric equipment came to be discarded in Europe. The RoHS Directive was enacted as the countermeasures for that situation, aiming promotion of environmentally sound recovery and treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipments by reducing hazardous substances in products. The eco-labels also become important in every country in the world because of expanding consumers' green purchase and green procurement by public offices and enterprises. The outline of the EU RoHS Directive and its expansion and the eco-labels in Europe is provided here.
In this article, energy-saving technology of image fusing system and reusing/recycling technology for the coming circulating society from the viewpoint of the concept “Comet circle" are explained by the examples of Ricoh's actual cases. The brief summary is as follows: 1)“QSU" technology which was developed to address “IEA-DSM Program" has now been evolving into Color QSU which is based on IH, after the development of HYBRID QSU which was integrated with Ricoh's Capacitor technology. 2)“Comet circle", which is shown by Ricoh as the conceptual image of the ideal form of circulating society, has been realized by Ricoh's MFP product, Supply product, and their Packing that are developed with the circulating development based on Quality Engineering, Visualization, and Quality Prediction.