To evaluate absolutely the triboelectric charging ability of toner with any measurement device, there is a way to define the triboelectricity of the toner as the position (the zero-point-charge position) of the carrier having the same charging ability as the toner in a reference triboelectric series of carriers, of which coordinates are common in all measurement devices. However, to use this method, it is necessary to define the triboelectric series of carriers with common coordinate values that can be applied to any toner with any measurement device. In this study, we have examined whether to be able to define the triboelectric series which has common coordinates by using the standardized carrier of the Imaging Society of Japan. As a result, although the coordinate interval between the carriers varied depending on how to select the reference toner which was the origin of the coordinates, it was possible to determine common coordinate values on the triboelectric series of the carriers if the charging tendency of each toner against the carriers could be expressed linearly in the triboelectric series which coordinates of were defined by using one reference toner. Therefore, it has been found that the triboelectricity of a toner is possible to be determined absolutely by examining the charging tendency of the toner against the carriers which are coordinated on the triboelectric series.
There is a zero-point-charge method of absolutely evaluating the triboelectric charging ability of toner with any measurement device. The zero-point-charge is defined as the position of carrier having the same charging ability of the toner on a triboelectric series of carriers. However, to use this method, it is necessary that the measured values of toner electrification quantity don't include values except for the triboelectric charging between toner and carrier, therefore, it is necessary to confirm the reliability of measured zero-point-charge position. In this study, we have examined the method of guaranteeing the reliability of the zero-point-charge position of each measurement device when using the triboelectric series of the standardized carriers of the Imaging Society of Japan. More specifically, we have measured several zero-point-charge positions by changing the triboelectric charging conditions between toner and carrier and examined the equality for those values.
As a result, even though the zero-point-charge position of each measurement device appears to be the same, the reliability of each value is not the same in terms of the degree of convergence of the zero-point-charge positions measured with different conditions.
This verification method is applicable to any measurement device and the numerical values for convergence of the zero-point-charge positions of each device are likely to be common to all devices. Therefore, this verification method has the possibility of being a standard.
It has been high-cost work to build a vegetation map by combining a near infrared and visible red images. It might be very convenient and useful for monitoring vegetation area if we can make the vegetation map without any near infrared images.
One of the solutions is to utilize GEI (Green Excess Index) instead of traditional NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). GEI is also called ‘RGB vegetation index' for it is defined by three visible bands. It was manifested that GEI can discriminate vegetation areas from non-vegetation ones without any near infrared information in the landscape images acquired by an ordinary digital camera on a small multi-copter.
The developer technologies in this 10 years have been reviewed from the point of view of demands for toner and their corresponding technologies to improve the electrophotography system. About 10 years ago, technical issues were to develop the advanced technology such as high-quality imaging technology and oil-less fixing technology of full color system. Therefore, the toner was required to have a small particle size and a core-shell structure for color toner so that various polymerized toner technologies were established. On the other hand, since the electrophotographic market stagnated after the Lehman shock, the development trend in this 10 years were to develop a low temperature fixing toner with advantages in economics and a special color toner with high added value for printing material to develop a digital printing market.
Technology evolutions of Ink Jet and market changes for this decade are explained. In this decade, Ink Jet technology applicable markets have been drastically altered. We can see both technology evolutions motivating changing markets and evolutions replying requests from market changes. At any hand, it's thought there are transition of mainly used media from paper to various media including non-permeable media, value change of prints in the market and massive different of productivities behind these technology evolutions.
As a configuration of Ink Jet technology evolution, after a concentrating functions progress where performance increases of each elemental component contributes system performance upgrade, a sharing functions progress has occurred where surrounding technologies share the serious issues to challenge high targets. And new evolution axes differing from exiting axes (image quality, printing speed) have been required in a concentrating functions progress.
Thermal recording system is a simple configuration consisting of a thermal head and a thermal recording material. It was invented in 1960's and has been improved to these days. As a result, the market has steadily expanded.
Today, many thermal recording systems are used around us. For example, most of the photographic prints, ID cards, medical photographs, labels, and receipts are covered by thermal recording system.
In these markets, it is essential to design the system compact, lightweight, reliable and inexpensive. Thermal recording satisfies all these requirements.
This paper introduces progress of thermal recording technologies over the last 10 years and new market created by the progress.
Thermal recording technology is expected to develop in the future with both the basic research which strengthen its foundation and the applied research which realize the market demand.
Recent progress of image processing technologies in past decade relating our society is reported. They were not so big changes in technically, but spread widely in practical usage. In next decade, vision and kansei (sensibility) may become important keywords for image processing and some kind of AI technique will be applied to them in many case.
This paper was written as a sequel to the 50th anniversary of the foundation of the Imaging Society of Japan published 10 years ago, “Electronic Paper” (edited by the Imaging Society of Japan). Looking at trends in the electronic paper over the past 10 years, it can be said that various methods were proposed in the first half, and then methods were consolidated. On the technical side, remarkable progress was observed mainly in the electrophoretic method, particularly colorization and flexibility were promoted. On the application side, e-book terminals and electronic price tags are widely used, and attempts to develop into new fields such as fashion fields of watches and clothing are also becoming prominent.