This paper evaluates people's conscious for digital devices from their behavior for the devices. Fourteen people performed tasks using four media : a sheet of A4 paper, an A4-size tablet PC, and two types of A4-size electronic paper devices. We analyzed how they handled these media. Results showed that they frequently handled electronic paper devices with a single hand and slid them on a desk surface like a sheet of paper. This indicates that they considered electronic paper devices as analog stationery rather than as digital devices.
The volumetric 3D display, in which pixels are three-dimensionally arranged in the space, has an advantage that the stereoscopic image can be observed from universal viewpoints unlike the conventional binocular methods. The authors had developed a volumetric 3D display in which cross-sectional images were projected on a rotating helical screen. An image floating type volume type stereoscopic display was realized by combining parabolic mirror pairs in our volumetric 3D display system, but image projection apparatuses coexist with a 3D image was annoying for observers. In this study, a region which does not contribute to floating image formation inside a parabolic mirror pair is calculated. A mirror is installed in the calculated region, and a sectional image is projected by a projector from a minute hole provided on the side of the parabolic mirror. We confirmed experimentally that a floating image can be formed without degradation when using our new construction. This configuration allows all structures of the display to be hidden from observers.
4DFF2018 (Conference on 4D and Functional Printing 2018) was held on October in 2018 and special interest group ‘4DFF Research Group' was established on this April. Both of the conference and the research group target ‘Researches and Developments aiming to create new values beyond existing 3-dimensional fabricating or presenting technologies'.
In this paper, the definition of 4D ‘Printing' strongly linking with the scope of the research group is considered. And policies or concepts involving activities of the research group are described.
Recently, a 4D Printing has attracted attention as next of 3D printing. The fourth dimension is time or function, for example, 3D objects that a shape changeable with time, that has function appearing under specific conditions, etc. For describing these properties, a data format for 4D printing should hold not only shape homogeneously by conventional polygon format but also physical properties and/or state variable in arbitrary position in the object. We have been proposed a 3D data format “FAV”, which express the object by arranging voxels, a fundamental volume unit. In the FAV, each voxel can hold “attribute”, so it is suitable for 4D printing. In this paper, we explain about FAV focusing on remarkable specifications such as a link information (relationship between adjacent voxels), hierarchical multi-scale voxel definition, and management of user defined attributes. And we also introduce some applications such as a distribution design of graded composite materials, and pattern modification based on a user defined attribute.
We report on the representation of physical quantities in various three-dimensional (3D) spaces using additive manufacturing (AM), and the use of the next generation 3D fabricatable voxel (FAV) file format in material science. First, early AM principles are detailed, followed by a brief explanation of the standard triangulated language (STL) file format, which is currently used as a global standard. Next, we introduce the 3D modeling of molecular and crystal structures and electron clouds, with specific focus on the expression of physical quantities in 3D spaces using AM. We also show another application example wherein 3D modeling is used to evaluate the airflow over Mt. Fuji. Finally, we propose a future utilization plan for the FAV file format, which has been recently developed and standardized, to compensate for the shortcomings of the STL file format.
We could not make the parallel cross structure with the subtractive manufacturing method. However, by using Additive Manufacturing technology, we came to be able to make the parallel cross structure. By the evaluation of the parallel cross structure, we have found that we can control the physical properties, such as the elasticity. And we have invented the Bi-Matrix composite technology, which compounds different kind of materials, by applying parallel cross structure. Bi-Matrix composite can compound materials which do not join and graded materials can be made.
Carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRTP) is a composite material with mechanical anisotropy when continuous fiber is used as the reinforcement material. In 3D printing of the CFRTP, moving path of a nozzle (print path) is coincides with fiber direction in the 3D printed CFRTP. Optimized print path is obtained based on the stress distribution determined from the 3D printed shape and the loading condition in use. Mechanical property of the 3D printed part is maximized by using the optimized print path. It is, therefore, important to consider 4D printing since manufacturing of shape (3D) with print path optimization (1D) are required. In this paper, some examples of 3D printing of CFRTP reported by the authors are explained.
KYORAKU Co., Ltd. is developing 3D printing (FDM) materials using the know-how accumulated in manufacturing automotive parts and medical and food package. This paper presents the required performance for thermo plastic as a 3D printing material that has been clarified from the Kyoraku's development so far, as well as a description of SMP55 (shape memory polyurethane) and soft elastomer material as a new material developed by Kyoraku, and introduce the case study of utilization examination to 4D printing field using those new materials.
Many patients continue to wait for organs to undergo organ transplantation.“Is it possible to produce organs using machines?” -this is the challenge taken up at our laboratory and further research is underway. Tissue engineering has shot into prominence since 1990's and is gaining importance around the world. Pluripotent stem cells such as ES cells and iPS cells have been discovered, and stem cell technology has further expanded following advancements in the life sciences and bioengineering. 3D (three-dimensional) tissue engineering has arisen to the level of organ engineering from living cells. Through this paper, we introduce our innovative research to overcome several obstructions in tissue engineering with the development of the inkjet 3D bioprinter and our recent strategic approach in organ production form a process engineering viewpoint.
In the manufacturing industry, 3D printers are not only a means of prototyping but also are developing as a unique manufacturing method that utilizes three-dimensional modeling. Although food 3D printers also have great potential in terms of food development, they are still in the early stages of development due to limitations of food dispensing technology at this time. The main advantages of food 3D printers are customizability, on-demand productivity and the ability to shape complex structure. We are developing nursing care food with food 3D printer. Soft nursing food is suitable for use as a food ingredient in 3D printing, and we are using multiple nozzles to change the taste, hardness etc. of the food. We expect that food 3D printers will be applied to the development of innovative foods as well as the reproduction of conventional foods.
When a building collapses after a disaster such as earthquake, a small robot is needed to search for survivors trapped in debris. Although research and development of unmanned robots and MAVs are being conducted, there are many problems. Many unmanned robots have many functions but are large-sized, so they are not suitable for use in closed places. On the other hand, although MAV are small-sized, its inertia is low due to its small self-weight, and it tends to be uncontrollable due to gusts and turbulence of the air flow. In addition, since the output is small, the maximum load capacity during flight is small, and the energy capacity of the mounted battery cannot be increased, and furthermore, since the power consumption is large, the drivable time is very short. In order to solve the problems of such artificial robots, a living insect is used as a platform, and a microcomputer with a small wireless module is mounted on the back of it to stimulate nerves and muscles of the insect with the voltage signal of the microcomputer in order to control its flight. By investigating, understanding and applying the flight mechanism of insects, it is possible to make use of the flight performance of insects that cannot be achieved by existing MAVs, and to secure a relatively large maximum loading capacity and long drivable time. This paper introduces some of the research and development of MAVs using living insects and artificial MAVs that mimic the flight mechanism of insects.