In order to examine an improvement plan with regard to the health problems and fatigue of truck drivers, a questionnaire survey concerning the work conditions, sleep conditions, environment, salary, existing health conditions, life habits and fatigue was conducted to 415 truck drivers in 2006. Replies from a total of 193 truck drivers in major companies and 222 truck drivers in small and medium-sized transport enterprises (SMEs) were analyzed. A chi-square test and t-test were performed to compare the SMEs and those from the major companies. The following problems were identified through the results from the analysis. The rates of long driving hours, lack of sleep, lack of holidays, driving with sleep away from home and spot work were significantly higher for drivers working for SMEs than those of major companies. The rates of drowsiness, driving at night and early morning, time pressure, and difficulty of parking during break time were significantly higher for drivers working for SMEs than major companies. A number of drivers working for SMEs slept in beds or the seats in the cabin of their trucks. The rate of dissatisfaction related to sleep environment was significantly higher in drivers working for SMEs than in those of major companies. The rates of performance-based pay and dissatisfaction related to salaries were significantly higher in drivers working for SMEs than those working for major companies. The frequency of medical checkups was significantly lower in SMEs than in major companies. As the factors of life habits, lack of vegetables, unbalanced diet and irregular meals were significantly higher for the truck drivers working for the SMEs than those of the major companies.
The purpose of this study was to clarify characteristics of the sharing processes for medical information in incident cases and to investigate viewpoints of enhancing patient safety. We conducted a time-motion observational study at a cardiovascular acute care hospital with 320 beds in Tokyo. The incident case, which was observed during the time-motion study, was examined, discussed and the results analyzed. Based on the observational study, we found that the unique characteristics of sharing processes for medical information on the observed incident case were : (a) assembling a team to solve the problem immediately with the nurse leader assigning roles to each medical staff member, (b) speedy actions and preparation of medical treatment by the nurse leader and (c) collaboration among nurses based on information sharing. Observations also suggested that to ensure patient clinical safety, it is essential to : (a) commence proactive protocols for a variety of incident cases ; (b) ensure leadership of the nurse leader ; and (c) share patient information appropriately based on collaboration among nurses.
We have sketched the history of lead-poisoning in Japanese children in the serial form in the Journal of Science of Labour. In1923, Professor Ikutaro Hirai firstly reported in a pediatric journal, Acta Paediatrica Japonica, that the so-called meningitis in infancy (SCMI) was a chronic lead-poisoning disease caused by white lead in the mothers’ face powder. Kenichiro Takasu strongly objected to the Hirai’s lead poisoning theory. Takasu had seen some patients with an early stage of SCMI, but he recognized them as a rickets-like syndrome. He could not associate the patients’ signs and symptoms with chronic lead poisoning, although the patients showed lead-poisoning related findings in their red blood cells. Hirai conclusively stated with some pieces of evidence in his article in Acta Paediatrica Japonica that the rickets-like syndrome described by Takasu was an early stage of SCMI. On the other hand, Yasuhei Tani, Mitsunori Karazawa and Soukitsu Nagahama asked Hirai respectively for partial explanation of the lead poisoning-theory, and Hirai gave them simple and plain answers. After the heated discussion with Takasu, the Hirai’s lead-poisoning theory has been accepted in the world.