The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of job stress and coping profiles on depression among staff in research institute of science and technology. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 473 males (researchers and engineers : 87.6% ; administrative/clerical staff：12.4%) working in a research institute of science and technology. A multiple regression analysis with depression as the dependent variable revealed that “future career prospects”, “quantitative workload”, and “support from colleagues” on the job stress scale, and also “active solution” and “avoidance and suppression” regarding the coping profiles significantly affected depression. These findings suggested that measures against depression among staff in the research institute should include : developing a career development framework to help staff members work with future prospects ; adjusting and managing the workload ; creating an environment facilitating coworker support ; conducting group training as well as individual interviews focusing on coping skills and strategies.
In order to examine an improvement plan with regard to the health problems and fatigue of truck drivers, the researcher traveled with truck drivers and examined the drivers’ (1) subjective value of fatigue and drowsiness, (2) videotape recording, (3) wrist activity, (4) heart rate and (5) electrooculogram. The participants were five truck drivers (driving for five days/four nights, four days/three nights, two days/one night, or on a daily basis) from small and medium-sized transport enterprises (SMEs), and three truck drivers (driving for three days/two nights) from larger companies. Long driving hours, less sleep, a tendency to continue driving until they felt drowsy and divided sleep patterns were observed for the drivers from SMEs. Conducting various tasks between terminals and a tendency to drive at night and sleep during the day were observed for drivers from larger companies. Sleeping on a bed or a seat in the truck cabin was observed for all the drivers. The results showed that the following aspects were considered important : partnership with proprietors and consignors, a driving plan that included time for rest, a schedule that rought to prevent long driving hours and limited rest, improving the sleep conditions inside the truck cabin and the coordinated effort for improving the highways and accommodation facilities.
When a major ship collision occurs, such as the Maritime Self-Defense Force (MSDF) destroyer Atago case, investigators will attempt to determine whether action to avoid the collision was taken in accordance with the navigation rules. The important point in the navigation rules is not the ship size but the ship position whereas small ships could easily avoid a collision. The dimensions of colliding ships were investigated using the case reports from the Marine Accident Inquiry Agency Japan from 1977 to 2008. The results indicated that there were many collisions between ships of different dimensions in various crossing situations. In view of these factors, it was suggested that the navigator should take into account the navigation rules as well as previous experiences and timing when taking action to avoid a collision. The need for further research on human factors regarding navigators was also pointed out.