This study seeks to evaluate the effect of regular and new nursing methods in nursing care work. Nursing care work often causes low back pain in nursing care workers. The principle of not lifting when transferring patients has been proposed as one way to prevent low back pain. This principle incorporates the use of the patient’s strength and assistant aids. A sliding seats and transfer boards have been proposed as assistant aids for transferring patients. The effectiveness of these assistant aids in preventing low back pain was evaluated. Ten subjects performed two tasks in this experiment. Five were nursing experienced persons and five were the inexperienced. Electromyography findings results indicated that the new nursing method was less stressful than the present methods. A questionnaire revealed that the new method was evaluated more highly than the regular method. Based on these results, we propose that a sliding seats and transfer boards be used in nursing care work.
We have proposed a built-in patient alert system on the bed which has actuators with built-in force sensors. This system estimates a patient’s motion such as rising, seating and standing, based on the information of load variations on the bed. When the patient’s motion with a risk of falling/tumbling accident is detected, the bed sends the signal through the nurse call system to the staff room. The built-in patient alert system thus makes cure and care environment efficient and effective. Performance comparison of various patient alert systems in acute hospitals shows the proposed system has higher accuracy and lower false alert. In concrete terms, hospital wards using built-in patient alert system increases the alert accuracy ratio from 70.1% to 98.1% and decreases the false alert ratio from 50.1% to 2.4% compared to hospital wards using existing sensors. And these effects are shown as the decrease of falling/tumbling accident rate. In concrete terms, hospital wards using built-in patient alert systems decreases the falling/tumbling accident ratio by 32~73% compared to hospital wards using existing sensors.
Weeding with a bush cutter on slopes, whereby the worker constantly has to deal with the danger of losing balance and falling, is extremely difficult. Such work in fact results in many severe accidents every year in Japan’s agricultural and forestry industries. However, few researches have been conducted with regard to maintaining correct posture and balance when working under these conditions, and currently implemented safety measures against such accidents are insufficient. It seems natural to assume that farmers with considerable experience in working on slopes with bush cutters know how best to maintain an effective working posture so as to prevent a fall. The aim of the present study was to determine ways to reduce severe accidents when working with a bush cutter on slopes. An attempt was made to establish whether full-time farmers adopt a special posture or use particular techniques to avoid falls. Two experiments were conducted. The electromyographic features when working with a bush cutter on a slope were examined; the relationship between the myoelectric potential of the leg muscles and the centre of gravity position of the body while weeding on a simulated slope were studied by means of a gravicorder. The results suggest that farmers do in fact utilize appropriate muscle strategies to prevent falls. The following two mechanisms may explain the muscle strategy during weeding with a bush cutter on slopes. One is that the swing range of the centre of gravity of position of the body is limited as far as possible by the muscles of the lower limbs, which act to secure the ankle joints on the slope. The other is that the angle between the plantar surface of the left foot and the slope is reduced as much as possible, resulting in increased frictional force. It is highly likely that workers with considerable experience in weeding with a bush cutter on slopes would have built up knowledge with respect to this kind of working posture. Systematizing findings about such workers appear to increase the safety of both current and future workers and may result in greater information for developing safety devices.
The Committee placed in the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport has been discussing for about two years how to assist the victims and their families caused by public transport accidents. To get more information concerned with assistance of victims and their families in transport disasters, the activities of TDA (Transport Disaster Assistance) of NTSB (National Transport Safety Board) and other organizations in the United States were investigated. Through these activities, what victims and their families wanted to know, how information they needed more were discussed. And the disaster assistance was needed as the first response for the accident occurrence, and simultaneously the follow-up care was needed continuously. The public window for informing about the process of accident investigation was also essential. The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport decided in 2012 to organize a system to assist the victims of public transport accidents and their families accepting the opinions from the Committee.