The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a group alcohol intervention (S-HAPPY program) for high risk drinkers using the framework of “Specific Health Examination and Health Guidance of Metabolic Syndrome (Tokutei Hokensido)” at the workplace. Fifty-five males who met both the criteria of Health Guidance of Metabolic Syndrome and high-risk alcohol drinkers (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score ≥ 10 or ≥ 21 drinks/week) of a semiconductor material company who underwent a six-month program of motivational and active support were provided a group alcohol intervention. In accordance with the Tokutei Hokensido schedule, the participants took three group lectures using video teaching-materials and workbooks, and kept health diaries including the records of alcohol consumption until the end of the intervention. AUDIT scores, the amount of drinking and health examination data were compared before and after the intervention. AUDIT scores and alcohol consumptions were significantly reduced after the intervention (from 13.1 to 10.1 for AUDIT score, and from 27.7 to 19.2 drinks/week for amount of alcohol drinking, p<0.01 for both). Waist circumference, body weight, BMI, diastolic blood pressure, ALT and γ-GTP significantly decreased, while HDL-cholesterol significantly increased after the intervention. Combined prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and the developing metabolic syndrome decreased from 89.1% to 56.4% (p<0.01). In conclusion, a group alcohol intervention program (S-HAPPY program) might be effective for alcohol consumption reduction and preventing the metabolic syndrome among high-risk drinkers.
The sense of busyness has been suggested to lead to human errors, while the factors influential on this sense of busyness remain unclear. We investigated the factors influential on the sense of busyness among employees in an organizational environment and examined the underlying factorial relationship. We surveyed 1,404 plant workers using a questionnaire consisting of 39 items. The results showed that the sense of highly concentrated work, the feeling of incompetence and a tendency to receive little support affected one’s sense of busyness. The “sense of highly concentrated work” was primarily concerned with one’s subjective view of work quantity, a tendency to receive multiple assignments at once and the amount of information given to each employee. The “feeling of incompetence” was predominantly concerned with whether or not the employee possessed work-related skills and could understand the full picture of operations. The “tendency to receive little support” described one’s way of acting within a group. Overall, the sense of busyness was found to be the most strongly influenced by the sense of highly concentrated work, with feelings of incompetence and a tendency to receive little support affecting one’s sense of busyness through the sense of highly concentrated work.
We conducted a preliminary field study that examined sleep-wake rhythms and on-board performance in simulated airline pilot crew systems in two international west bound Narita-Delhi and Fukuoka-Mumbai flights. The out- and home-bound Delhi flights were conducted as nighttime operations with the single crew system, and the out-bound flight from Mumbai as a daytime operation and the home-bound flight as a night flight with the multiple crew system. Two male researchers (age 36 and 47) participated in this investigation acting as a captain and a first officer. Changes in Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) performance during the flight operations as well as sleep-EEG and rectal temperature at all the sleep periods were measured. The sleep duration during the first layover night just after the out-bound flights was shorter than the daily nighttime sleep duration in Japan. Due to constraints of the earlier departure time at Mumbai, the duration of a prophylactic nap taken just before the home-bound flight was shorter than that taken at Delhi. Sleep architecture of a middle-aged participant was more impaired than that of a younger participant. The PVT performance thus reflected the negative impact by the night-time flights compared with the daytime flights, and the negative impact by the home-bound flights compared with the out-bound flights. Daytime napping (the replacement nap) on the layover day facilitated the increase in the duration of main sleep at local time. The home-bound flights at nighttime operations were associated with considerably higher levels of PVT lapses than the out-bound flights, but the observed impairments were mitigated by on-board napping. These results suggest that it will be important to take on-board napping, particularly for a middle-aged captain, and we would like to reflect these findings in the next investigation.