The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) was issued as United Nations Recommendations in 2003. The World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) encouraged countries to implement the GHS as soon as possible with a view to having the system fully operational by 2008. Since then, many countries all over the world have implemented or are preparing to implement the system. The pace and extent of global implementation of the GHS, though, have been noted to be uneven and diverse. The status of the implementation of the GHS in the workplace in the Philippines, Malaysia and Japan was studied and compared with that in the EU and the USA. Comparisons focused on the provisions of the regulatory system including accountability and penalty; target chemicals; target audience; and hazards exempted from classification. The approaches to implement the GHS varied according to the countries and the implementation, to a larger extent, would depend on existing regulatory systems. Because the GHS, by its form and intent, is recommendatory, the scope and extent of the GHS implementation in every country around the world will not be the same at any given. This paper would be helpful for the countries to consider the implementation of the GHS.
This study examined the effect of using a pedal wheelchair on counteracting a further decline in walking ability of the elderly. The study conducted over a period of six weeks investigated the changes in walking ability of elderly persons in the initial stage of using a wheelchair, being able to walk independently with the help of a walking stick or another aid (primarily those corresponding to nursing care level 1 or 2). Intervention of these participants revealed that a group that continuously exercised on a pedal wheelchair tended to be able to walk a certain distance in a shorter time than a control group involved solely in regular rehabilitation activities. The effect of using a pedal wheelchair began to appear at four weeks and thereafter. At six weeks, the pedal wheelchair group took significantly less time to walk the given distance than the control group. The results suggest that adding a pedal wheelchair exercise to regular rehabilitation programs has the effect of not only preventing a further decline in patients' walking ability but also improving this ability.