Background: Melasma still presents as a difficult entity to treat, especially in the Asian skin phenotype. Recently laser toning with the Q-switched Nd:YAG has attracted attention. The present study investigated the efficacy of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser toning for melasma, with a histopathological comparison with the Q-switched ruby laser. Subjects and Methods: Eight Japanese females (41-57 yr, mean 52.5 yr) with Fitzpatrick skin type III and bilateral melasma participated in the study. One half of each subject’s face (randomly chosen) was treated with Q-switched 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser toning (pulse width 5-20 ns; spot size, 6 mm diameter; fluence, 3.0 J/cm2, 5-7 passes, once/week, 4 weeks: QS:YAG group), and the contralateral half with a single treatment using a Q-switched ruby laser (694.5 nm, pulse width 20 ns, spot size 4 mm diameter; fluence 4.0 J/cm2, 1 pass with approximately 20% overlap: QS:Ruby group). Skin biopsies were taken immediately after the 4th Nd:YAG session and the single ruby session, and histopathological comparison was performed with light- and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: Improvement in melasma pigmentation was seen in both the QS:YAG- and QS:Ruby-treated sides, and this was well-maintained in the QS:YAG group. Ultrastructurally, melanin granules were destroyed in both groups, but there was considerably more morphological epidermal and dermal damage in the QS:Ruby specimens compared with minimal epidermal disruption and cellular damage in the QS:YAG specimens. Conclusions: Q-switched 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser toning offered superior results in the treatment of melasma in the Japanese skin type compared with the Q-switched ruby laser, both ultrastructurally with less immediately post-treatment cellular damage and macroscopically, and a longer recurrence-free interval.
In recent years, through the availability of examination by bone metabolism markers, diagnosis and treatment for osteoporosis in elderly people has been greatly advanced. However, bone metabolism in cases of cerebral palsy has not been fully examined. Though children with cerebral palsy tend to be susceptible to insufficiency fractures, a method of treatment for insufficiency fractures has not been established. In the longitudinal progress of bone metabolism, although there was a difference depending on the severity, reduced bone resorption tended to be mild but osteogenesis tended to decrease in the severe cases. Osteogenesis and bone resorption markers decreased at around ages 8 and 15. The bone resorption marker maintained mild advancement after age 15. With LED irradiation, all of IGF-1, ucOC, osteogenic marker; BAP, and urinary bone resorption marker; NTx/Cr showed a tendency to normalize. In particular, IGF-1, BAP, and NTx/Cr increased significantly one month after irradiation, compared to the non-irradiation group. Bone density assessed by the DIP method showed no apparent change in the short term either. Irradiation by a commercial LED light bulb indicated a possible positive effect on bone metabolism for children with severe cerebral palsy.
Background and Aims: In previous studies, we successfully applied Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) in patients with non-specific chronic pain of the shoulder joint and lower back. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of LLLT for chronic joint pain of the elbow, wrist, and fingers. Subjects and Methods: Nine male and 15 female patients with chronic joint pain of the elbow, wrist, or fingers, who were treated at the rehabilitation outpatient clinic at our hospital from April, 2007 to March, 2009 were enrolled in the study. We used a 1000 mW semiconductor laser device. Each tender point and three points around it were irradiated with laser energy. Each point was irradiated twice for 20 s per treatment, giving a total of three minutes for all 4 points. Patients visited the clinic twice a week, and were evaluated after four weeks of treatment. Pain was evaluated with a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Statistical analysis of the VAS scores after laser irradiation was performed with Wilcoxon’s signed rank sum test, using SPSS Ver.17. Results: All VAS scores were totaled and statistically analyzed. The average VAS score before irradiation was 59.2±12.9, and 33.1±12.2 after the irradiation, showing a significant improvement in VAS score (p<0.001) after treatment. The treatment effect lasted for about one and a half days in the case of wrist pain, epicondylitis lateralis (tennis elbow), and carpal tunnel syndrome. In other pain entities, it lasted for about three to fifteen hours. No change in the range of motion (ROM) was seen in any of the 24 subjects. Conclusion: We concluded that LLLT at the wavelength and parameters used in the present study was effective for chronic pain of the elbow, wrist, and fingers.
Background and aim: The diode laser combined with Er:YAG laser is a new treatment modality for acute sialadenitis. A 78-year-old woman with acute suppurative parotitis was treated by traditional probe to the duct orifice with oral antibiotics for 2 weeks. The symptoms and signs did not subside after treatment. The Er:YAG laser was used to reduce severe infection and inflammation and low level laser therapy (LLLT) was applied to relieve pain sensation during incision and drainage. Less scar formation and obstruction was observed after the laser treatments. Results: Purulent secretions from the Stensen duct was noted after milking the parotid gland. The symptoms and signs were significantly relieved after combined laser treatments. The patient experienced no pain during the course of treatment. No recurrence of the symptoms and signs was noted after 1-year follow-up, and the prognosis was very good. Conclusion: The hemostatic properties of the diode laser enable better control of the surgical field and faster healing of the wound lesions. The bactericidal effect of Er:YAG lasers has been proved by many researchers, and has been shown to reduce infection and inflammation for better wound healing. The combined laser therapy of diode and Er:YAG lasers is recommended in treating acute sialadenitis.