Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disorder that involves inflammation and pain of the joints. Light-Emitting Diode (LED) irradiation is being evaluated for treating RA; however, the mechanism is unclear. Monocyte chemotaxis protein (MCP)-1 is a key chemokine in the inflammatory status of RA, and MCP-1 levels in plasma are described as a marker for joint inflammation in RA. Aim: To understand the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of LED irradiation on RA, the expression of MCP-1 was examined in the knee joints of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. Materials and methods: The rats were immunized with type II collagen and CIA development was confirmed. CIA rat joints were irradiated with LED energy (3 sessions/week, 2 weeks. 840 nm, 2 J/cm2). Total RNA was isolated from the rat knee joint tissues and the MCP-1 mRNA levels were monitored with the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique and realtime PCR. MCP-1 production in the rat knee joints was analyzed immunohistochemically. Results: RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that MCP-1 mRNA levels had increased in CIA animals when compared to controls, and LED irradiation significant reduced the gene expression in CIA rats. Real-time PCR analysis confirmed a significant reduction in MCP-1 gene expression. The immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated strong MCP-1 staining in CIA rat joint synovial membrane tissue, and LED irradiation significantly reduced the staining. Discussion: Since MCP-1 has been identified as an important chemokine in the pathogenesis of RA, the reduction of MCP-1 expression would appear to be one of the mechanisms in the reduction of inflammation by LED irradiation. Conclusion: LED irradiation reduced RA-related inflammation through the reduction of MCP-1 gene expression in CIA rat knee joint synovial tissue
A double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 30 female Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) patients who had pain as a chief complaint. The patients were randomly allocated into three groups based on Low Intensity Laser (LILT) regimes namely 820 nm Gallium Aluminium Arsenide (GaAlAs) laser at energy densities of 21.4J/cm2, 107 J/cm2 and placebo laser. Each patient had three LILT treatments in a week. The pressure pain threshold (PPT) of trigger points in masticatory muscles, unassisted maximum mouth opening without pain (MOSP) and symptom severity index (SSI) were recorded as baseline data and monitored after every treatment. Jaw kinesiology, electromyography (EMG) and pain rating index from McGill pain questionnaire were also recorded as baseline and final results. The analysis of covariance and further analysis showed that the higher energy density laser group had significant increases in PPT and EMG amplitude recorded from voluntary clenching (cEMG) compared with the placebo group at P values 0.0001 and 0.022 respectively. A significantly greater number of patients recovered from myofascial pain and TMJ arthralgia as assessed clinically in the higher energy group compared with the placebo (P value = 0.02 and 0.006 respectively). There was no statistically significant difference in the other parameters of assessment among the groups at a P value 0.05. At a period of 2 to 4 weeks review after LILT, there was an average 52% reduction of pain as assessed by SSI.
Background and Aims: In previous studies we have reported the benefits of low level laser therapy (LLLT) for chronic shoulder joint pain, elbow, hand and finger pain, and low back pain. The present study is a report on the effects of LLLT for chronic neck pain. Materials and Methods: Over a 3 year period, 26 rehabilitation department outpatients with chronic neck pain, diagnosed as being caused by cervical disk hernia, underwent treatment applied to the painful area with a 1000 mW semi-conductor laser device delivering at 830 nm in continuous wave, 20.1 J/cm2/point, and three shots were given per session (1 treatment) with twice a week for 4 weeks. Results: 1. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to determine the effects of LLLT for chronic pain and after the end of the treatment regimen a significant improvement was observed (p<0.001). 2. After treatment, no significant differences in cervical spine range of motion were observed. 3. Discussions with the patients revealed that in order to receive continued benefits from treatment, it was important for them to be taught how to avoid postures that would cause them neck pain in everyday life. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that LLLT was an effective form of treatment for neck and back pain caused by cervical disk hernia, reinforced by postural training.
Objective: To determine the clinical efficacy of methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL)-Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) in the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK), basal cell carcinoma (BCC), acne vulgaris (AV) and photoaging (PA), in the short and medium term. Subjects and methods: Four separate prospective studies were designed on patients with AK (n=25), BCC (n=20), AV (n=20) and PA (n=25). Two PDT protocols were applied, and different clinical efficacy criteria were established, including lesion count and size. Two semi-quantitative and four analogue visual scales were completed for the evaluation of results according to the therapist, the patient and two independent experts. Results: In the AK and BCC studies, full clinical remission was observed in 84.7% and 75.7% of lesions, respectively. In the AV study, the number of inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions fell significantly (p<0.001, p<0.05). In the PA study a reduction in Dover scale scores (3.19 vs. 2.14, p<0.001) was proven. The percentages of satisfied or very satisfied patients were: AK=88%, BCC=90%, AV=89% and PA=80%. A year later, none of the AK or BCC lesions had reappeared, and the cases of AV and PA remained stable, with a tendency towards improvement. Conclusion: the MAL-PDT procedures used produced efficacious, safe and satisfactory results in KA, BCC, AV and PA in the short and medium term.
Background and Aims: Allergic rhinitis annually reaches epidemic proportions in Japan, and represents a major problem. The application of the CO2 laser in the treatment of allergic rhinitis was first successfully reported in 1982, but CO2 laser ablation is associated with side effects. The Ohshiro Clinic started using the conventional Nd: YAG laser for the treatment of allergic rhinitis in 1993, and from 2005 we started using a diode laser-pumped Nd: YAG laser with efficacy and safety at least equal to the others. Even more recently, we have adopted a novel 808 nm diode laser, and the present retrospective study examined the difference in of the efficacy rate between the preseasonal and intra-seasonal treatment of allergic rhinitis with this system. Subjects and methods: One thousand, two hundred and ten patients primarily presented to the Ohshiro Clinic with allergic rhinitis during the period from December 2010 to April 2011, of whom 531 were selected for blood tests to identify 13 kinds of Japanese allergens including cedar pollen. In the 2010-2011 season, huge clouds of cedar pollen appeared from February 26th. The subjects were therefore divided into two groups depending on the treatment period, namely the preseasonal and intra-seasonal groups, December 1st, 2010 to February 25th, 2011 and February 26th to April 6th 2011, respectively. All patients were treated with the new 808 nm diode laser system. Results: A high success rate was achieved in both groups, with no significant difference seen regarding the symptoms of rhinorrhea, obstruction, sneezing, quality of life (QOL) or severity. Conclusions: The 808 nm diode laser offers an excellent solution for the uncomfortable symptoms of allergic rhinitis, and could be equally well applied before or during the Japanese cedar pollen dispersed season.
Background and aims: Patients now want a long-lasting youthful appearance but with a minimally-invasive approach. Our unique approach, “AdipoLASER reJuvenation (ALJ)”, involves a variety of minimally-invasive laser- and lipolysis-based techniques, and the present study assessed the impact of this ALJ approach. Subjects and Methods: From 2008 - 2011, we prospectively enrolled 221 patients into the study. 71 of them, underwent the ALJ approach: 2 reductive techniques via microliposuction and laserassisted lipolysis (LAL); and 2 regenerative techniques via autologous fat graft and fractional CO2 laser resurfacing. The remaining 150 patients underwent only 1 or 2 of these techniques. Patients were monitored through 1 to 18 months, clinical photography was taken and histological assessments were performed. Results: ignificantly better and long-lasting results were obtained for the complete ALJ approach regarding all aspects of the face, mandible and neck compared with controls. The combination of the regenerative and the reductive approaches delivered on excellent balance, restoring a youthful, natural appearance to the face. Conclusions: The fractional CO2 laser has both a photodestructive, or HLLT, effect and an LLLT component in the beam periphery. This LLLT effect possibly prolonged the life and improved the take of the fat grafts, with the well-documented HLLT effect inducing swift collagenesis and better remodeling of the dermal matrix. A natural look in depressed areas was thus restored with the combination of fat redistribution and the HLLT/LLLT effect. Microlipolysis and laser-assisted lipolysis (LAL) could at the same time remove those areas of redundant and prolapsed fat while countering skin laxity, and address both jowl formation and submental flaccidity. The unique combination of all four approaches in our “AdipoLASER reJuvenation” proved to be superior to any other lesser approach in both the long- and short term with very little patient downtime, but did not present much more in terms of treatment time and cost to the patient. We believe that the ALJ approach offers a real minimally-invasive alternative to the classic surgical facelift