Background: A number of cardiovascular, neurological, musculoskeletal and other diseases have a limited capacity for repair and only a modest progress has been made in treatment of brain diseases. The discovery of stem cells has opened new possibilities for the treatment of these maladies, and cell therapy now stands at the cutting-edge of modern regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Experimental data and the first clinical trials employing stem cells have shown their broad therapeutic potential and have brought hope to patients suffering from devastating pathologies of different organs and systems. Aims: Here, we briefly review the main achievements and trends in cell-based therapy, with an emphasis on the main types of stem cells: embryonic, mesenchymal stromal and induced pluripotent cells. Discussion: Many questions regarding the application of stem cells remain unanswered, particularly tumorigenicity, immune rejection and danger of gene manipulation. Currently, only MSC seems to be safe and might be considered to be a leading candidate for human application to treat pathologies that affect the cardiovascular, neurological and musculoskeletal systems.
Background and aims: The current investigation was aimed at the development of a novel non-invasive treatment system, “pinpoint plantar long-wavelength infrared light irradiation (PP-LILI)”,which may be able to relieve mental stress and reduce stress-related hormones. Materials (Subjects) and methods: We compared the subcutaneous temperature, blood pressure,the degree of secretion of stress hormones before and after pinpoint irradiations (wavelength: 8-11μm; output: 30mW). The study enrolled 15 subjects (Japanese healthy adults; 8 males, 7 females; average age 47.8 ± 14.6 years). Two parts of the planter region were irradiated for 15 min respectively. The stress markers such as ACTH, salivary amylase and cortisol were measured. As well, core body temperature and blood pressure were analyzed before and after the irradiation. Results: A series of experiments revealed increased body temperature, decreased levels of blood pressure and stress markers described above after the irradiation. Conclusions: These results clearly suggest that the PP-LILI system will be quite useful for relieving stress and improvement of homeostatic functions in the body.
Background: Ion beam has been used in cancer treatment, and has a unique preferable feature to deposit its main energy inside a human body so that cancer cell could be killed by the ion beam. However, conventional ion accelerator tends to be huge in its size and its cost. In this paper a future intense-laser ion accelerator is proposed to make the ion accelerator compact. Subjects and methods: An intense femtosecond pulsed laser was employed to accelerate ions. The issues in the laser ion accelerator include the energy efficiency from the laser to the ions, the ion beam collimation, the ion energy spectrum control, the ion beam bunching and the ion particle energy control. In the study particle computer simulations were performed to solve the issues, and each component was designed to control the ion beam quality. Results: When an intense laser illuminates a target, electrons in the target are accelerated and leave from the target; temporarily a strong electric field is formed between the high-energy electrons and the target ions, and the target ions are accelerated. The energy efficiency from the laser to ions was improved by using a solid target with a fine sub-wavelength structure or by a near-critical density gas plasma. The ion beam collimation was realized by holes behind the solid target. The control of the ion energy spectrum and the ion particle energy, and the ion beam bunching were successfully realized by a multi-stage laser-target interaction. Conclusions: The present study proposed a novel concept for a future compact laser ion accelerator, based on each component study required to control the ion beam quality and parameters.
Laser technology got in these years a more and more important role in modern dentistry and, recently, also in orthodontics was proposed the utilization of laser devices. The aim of this work is to describe the utilization of this technology both in soft and hard oral tissues to improve orthodontic treatment. Several cases, with different wavelengths (532, 810, 980, 1064, 2940 and 10600 nm) and in different times of the treatment (before, during and after) are presented. All the cases reported showed, according to the literature, that the use of the laser related to orthodontic treatment offers several advantages when compared with conventional methods. In the soft tissues surgery it allows to reduce or eliminate the use of anesthetic injection, to avoid use of sutures and to bond bracket in dry enamel; associated with orthophosphoric acid, it gives a stronger adhesion of the brackets to the enamel and, in the case of porcelain brackets, it detaches them without damages; at low power (LLLT) it permits to control the pain of the first period after bonding and, by increasing the speed of teeth movement in the bone, reduces the time of the treatment.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tooth coating material and finishing agent on bleached enamel surfaces after using KTP laser with 27% hydrogen peroxide. Background data: There have been few reports on the effects of tooth coating materials and finishing agents after bleaching. Methods: After 40 crowns of human extracted maxillary incisors were bleached by KTP laser, bleached enamels were finished with fluoride only or both of fluoride and nano-hydroxyapatite as a finishing agent. After application(s) of fluoride and/or finishing agent, the enamel surfaces were divided into 2 groups, which were covered with the coating material or without coating material. After application of coating materials, all specimens were kept for 2 weeks at 37°C of 100% humidity. After removing the coating material, color changing was measured and enamel surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: SEM observation of enamel surfaces treated the fluoride gel, finishing agent and coating material showed the most flattered surface compared to other groups. By measuring the color changing, few color changing was observed on the enamel surfaces treated the fluoride gel, finishing agents and coating material. Conclusion: These results suggested that applications of fluoride gel, finishing agent and coating material made the enamel-surfaces flattered and kept effects of bleaching, could prevent the re-coloration. After applications of fluoride gel and finishing agent, covering the bleached-enamel surfaces with the coating material enhanced the keeping whiteness. It would give the patients satisfaction of whiteness.
Introduction and Aims: Cellulite is a problematic condition affecting mostly women, characterized by a bumpy or nodular skin surface. Recent approaches with laser treatment have offered some promise. The present study sought to identify possible targets for laser treatment or light therapy through an ultrastructural investigation of the condition. Subjects and Methods: Study subjects comprised 7 healthy Japanese female volunteers (Age range 37-46 yr, average 38.4) with cellulite, graded on the 4-point Nurnberger-Muller cellulite severity scale. Four patients were at grade 2 and 3 at grade 3. Three millimeter punch biopsies were obtained and routinely processed for light and transmission electron microscopy. Results: Microphotography of specimens from cellulite patients demonstrated the presence of fibrotic septa which divided up larger clusters of adipose tissue into smaller packets, with the septa acting as a tethering system, thus producing the typical dimpling pattern. Ultrastructural findings showed proliferation of collagen and elastic fibers down into the cellulite tissue with compression of capillaries and congestion of arterioles, resulting in poor blood flow. Conclusions: The histological and ultrastructural findings of cellulite clearly distinguish the condition from simple fat deposition. The remodeling of the fat layer into lobulated packets of lipocytes sequestered by fibrotic septa with a high proportion of elastic fibers would suggest the use of a fiber-based interstitial laser-assisted lipolysis system at an appropriate wavelength which might offer benefits through disruption of the septae through a photomechanical effect and lipolysis of the sequestered lipocytes. This could be followed by a course of near-infrared phototherapy to accelerate clearance of freed lipid and debris and reestablish the vascular system.