Background and Aims: The first society formed to represent the “new” field of laser applications in medicine and surgery was the late Professor Kaplan's International Society for Laser Surgery and Medicine, held in Israel in 1975. Following the ISLSM lead, a large number of national and international societies were very swiftly formed. As the number grew, it became obvious that some sort of linking forum would help all these separate societies to pool the knowledge of their members for the good of the clinicians and their patients. The World Federation of Societies for Laser Medicine and Surgery was formed to attempt to fill this role. The History: At the 1996 meeting of the Greek Medical Laser Association, the first international forum of representatives from 17 international and national laser societies was convened by Professor Nick Nicolopoulos, and the seed of an idea for a centralized forum to help separate laser societies coordinate efforts and knowledge was planted. This seed was nurtured by the ISLSM as the first medical laser society, and forums were called together at each meeting of the ISLSM and the other related societies from 1997 to 2003. At the 2004 Chinese Medical Laser Society meeting, the idea of worldwide federation of laser societies crystallized into a more tangible form. The Inaugural WFSLMS Congress: The convening of the first WFSLMS congress took place in Tokyo in 2005, under the leadership of Professor Kazuhiko Atsumi. At this meeting, Professor Kaplan proposed that a Medical Laser Foundation should be established and donated the first seed money for its formation. Because of the Japanese legal requirements, a foundation was impossible and so a Non-profit Organization (NPO-WFSLMS) was started, based in Japan, to oversee the work and fund the tasks of promoting laser surgery and medicine worldwide, for the good of mankind: the financing, running and holding WFSLMS congresses became one of the tasks of NPO-WFSLMS. Conclusion: Both the WFSLMS and NPO-WFSLMS were therefore on their way to working together for a cohesive approach to try and coordinate the work of all societies dedicated to laser medicine and surgery under the WFSLMS umbrella, with NPO-WFSLMS continuously gathering, administering and disbursing the funds to allow the WFSLMS to run its 4-yearly meetings.
Background: In our activity in the Ambulance Service of Bucharest Municipality during March 2002 - March 2003 we studied a casuistry of patients who had fallen in a coma of varying degrees. To aid better understanding of coma, the concept of “pre-coma stage” or “diencephalic 0 stage ” was introduced. This concept complements the Arseni classification already used in medical practice, because some doctors alternatively use the term of “inaugural coma” for the same condition that we call diencephalic “0 stage”. In the median hypothalamus and on the retino-hypothalamic path (SCN - AN) optical waves are transmitted, probably in the near infrared spectral range (800-1000 nm) in what we term the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS). These waves would constitute a means of transmitting information via the ARAS about the infradian biorhythm of coordination (frequencies below 1 cycle/28 hours), essential for the modulation and pre-processing of the consciousness and wakefulness, a fact which has already been demonstrated in animals. Methods: The current work is based on observations made on a group of 51 patients with the precoma and coma conditions, and on a thorough study of the specialized (especially Romanian) literature. Also, we used validated scientific proof of torture in conditions of lack of light. Results: We found a perfect interpenetration between the ARAS and the following two complementary subsystems: 1. The hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus, that has the role of coordinating the periodicity of some biological functions depending on the circadian rhythm; and 2. The main photoperiodic organ, the pineal gland (epiphysis), which together with the ARAS has a role in the photoperiodicity modulation of some biological functions during the state of vigilance.
Background: Low-level laser is being evaluated for treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recently, the linear polarized infrared light (Super Lizer, SL) irradiation may also be useful for RA treatment. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the effectiveness of SL on RA is unclear. It has been IL-20 may involved in RA disease progression. Aim: To understand how SL action, we constructed the experimental model in vitro using human rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocyte (MH7A) and collagen induced (CIA) RA rat in vivo. We examined the effect of SL irradiation on IL-20 gene expression in MH7A and IL-20 protein production in CIA rat joints. Materials and methods: MH7A was cultured and challenged with IL-1β, then examined IL-20 and IL-20R mRNA level by DNA microarray. IL-20 protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry using a specific antibody against rat IL-20. Result: Scatter plot analysis demonstrated that an increase in IL-20 gene expression by IL-1s was reduced by SL irradiation, but IL-20R did not show a significant change. The Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated a strong IL-20 staining in synovial membrane tissue of CIA rat joint, and SL irradiation significantly reduced the staining. Discussion: Since IL-20 has been identified as an important cytokine in the pathogenesis of RA, the reduction of IL-20 expression by SL irradiation may be one of mechanisms in reduction of inflammation in RA joints by SL irradiation suggesting that SL irradiation may be useful for RA therapy.
Background and aims: Photodynamic therapy with aminolevulinic acid (ALA-PDT) is effective therapy for acne vulgaris; however, relatively strong side effects limit its wide usage. We have previously demonstrated that ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX distribution with lower concentrations and shorter contact time of ALA resulted in focused damage in sebaceous glands in vivo. We have formulated a protocol for ALA-PDT using 5% ALA with 2 hours contact time. The objective of this study was to establish the effectiveness and side effect profile of the new protocol in humans. Subjects and Methods: Eleven Japanese patients (Fitzpatrick's skin type III - IV, mean age 23.7±7.2) with facial acne received topical application of 5% ALA for 2 hours with subsequent illumination by a broadband light (600 - 1100 nm, 15J/cm², 60 mW/cm²). Subjects were evaluated prior to the procedure, 1 month, and 3 months after the treatment by a blinded dermatologist using the global acne grading system (GAGS). Side effects were monitored through the treatment period. Results: The mean GAGS score decreased from 22.1±3.8 at baseline to 19.4 at 1 month, and to 16.3 at 3 months after PDT (P<0.05). Ten of eleven patients experienced local side effects, such as erythema, which were of minimal to mild severity. However, most side effects were of minimal to mild severity, and all of them resolved within several days without post inflammatory hyper pigmentation. Conclusion: Our protocol was effective for acne in Japanese and did not exhibit severe side effects.
Bone metabolism in children with severe fractures was examined, risk factors for fractures were characterized, and effects of LED (light-emitting diode) irradiation on the risk factors for fractures were investigated. Since insufficiency fracture in children with severe cerebral palsy can be caused without obvious external force in daily care, it is sometimes handled as a medical accident and can lead to a lawsuit. It is very important to explain the possibility of an insufficiency fracture to guardians before a fracture is caused. However, risk factors for fractures in bone metabolism has not been well investigated and preventive treatment of fractures have also not been established. Risk factors in bone metabolism were investigated in 14 cases of insufficiency fracture in children with severe cerebral palsy accompanied by akathisia in this study. Fractures were likely caused around 8 years old when children grew rapidly, and either IGF-1 or BAP showed low values in all cases. A group with LED irradiation consisting of 25 cases indicated a normal value of IGF-1 related to bone growth, BAP related to bone density and NTX/Cr. A case irradiated to LED for more than one month clearly showed normal bone metabolism compared with the change within a non irradiated group after one year. LED irradiation increased bone density and femur cortical bone thickness, and improved bone age. Adequate effects were not seen in two children at 14 years of age. The commercially available LED light bulbs that we used have a peak at 446-477 nm in the blue wave length, but also have second peaks at 574 nm in green, at 590 nm in yellow, and even 612 nm in orange and 660 nm in red are included. Although it is thought that such a variety of wave lengths might have a good influence on bone metabolism; exposure time and distance, number of regions, and time period irradiated to LED are important factors, since the LED power density is low (0.9 mW/m² with a 30 cm distance). Our results suggest that LED irradiation can be a phototherapy to activate human homeostasis.
Background and Aims: Vaginal relaxation syndrome (VRS) is both a physical and psychological problem for women and often their partners. Recently the 2940 nm Er:YAG laser has attracted attention for VRS treatment. The current study evaluated the clinical efficacy of this nonsurgical laser procedure. Subjects and Methods: Thirty postpartum females with VRS or vaginal atrophy, ages from 33 . 56 yr (mean 41.7 yr) were divided randomly into two groups, Group A and Group B. Both groups were treated for 4 sessions at 1~2-weekly intervals with a 2940 nm Er:YAG via 90° and 360° scanning scopes. In Group A the first 2 sessions were performed with the 360° scope and the final 2 with the 90° scope in multiple micropulse mode, 1.7 J delivered per shot, 3 multishots, 3 passes per session. Group B underwent multiple micropulse mode treatment with the 90° scope in all 4 sessions (same parameters as Group A) then during the final 2 sessions an additional 2 passes/session were delivered with the 360° scope, long-pulsed mode, 3.7 J delivered per shot. Perineometer assessments were performed at baseline and at 2 months post-treatment for vaginal tightness. Histological specimens were taken at baseline and at 2 months post-procedure. Subjective satisfaction with vaginal tightening was assessed together with improvement in sexual satisfaction. Results were tested for statistical significance with the paired Student's t-test. Results: All subjects successfully completed the study with no adverse events. Significant improvement in vaginal wall relaxation was seen in all subjects at 2 months post-procedure based on the perineometer values, on the partners' input for vaginal tightening (76.6%) and for sexual satisfaction as assessed by the subjects themselves (70.0%). The histological findings suggested better elasticity of the vaginal wall with tightening and firming. Conclusions: Both regimens of Er:YAG laser treatment for VRS produced significant improvementin vaginal relaxation. With multishots delivered in the multiple micropulse mode via scanning scopes, nonsurgical Er:YAG laser treatment was pain-free, safe, side effect free, easily tolerated and effective.