Background and aims:One of the major side effects of vital bleaching is the reduction of enamel micro-hardness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of two different bleaching systems, Plasma Arc and GaAlAs laser, on the enamel micro-hardness. Materials and methods: 15 freshly extracted human third molars were sectioned to prepare 30 enamel blocks (5×5 mm). These samples were then randomly divided into 2 groups of 15 each (n=15): a plasma arc bleaching group (: 350-700 nm) + 35% Hydrogen Peroxide whitening gel and a laser bleaching group (GaAlAs laser, λ: 810 nm, P: 10 W, CW, Special Tip) + 35% Hydrogen Peroxide whitening gel. Samples were subjected to the Vickers micro-hardness test (VHN) at a load of 50 g for 15s before and after treatment. Data were statistically analyzed by a Mann-Whitney test (p≤0.05). Results: In the GaAlAs laser group, the enamel micro-hardness was 618.2 before and was reduced to 544.6 after bleaching procedures. In the plasma arc group, the enamel micro-hardness was 644.8 before and 498.9 after bleaching. Although both techniques significantly reduced VHN, plasma arc bleaching resulted in a 22.62% reduction in VHN for enamel micro-hardness, whereas an 11.89% reduction in VHN was observed for laser bleaching; this difference is statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusions: Both bleaching techniques reduced enamel micro-hardness, although the reduction is much less significant with the GaAlAs laser than with the plasma arc. Therefore GaAlAs laser bleaching has fewer harmful effects than plasma arc in respect to enamel micro-hardness reduction.
Background and aims: Mild thermal treatment with “Pinpoint Plantar Long-wavelength Infrared Light Irradiation (PP-LILI) ” named as Stress-Free Therapy® increases peripheral-deep body temperature and blood flow, and improves multiple disorders including hyperpiesia, type II diabetes and cardiovascular patients. Immunomodulatory effects of PP-LILI were investigated. Materials and methods: Seven healthy individuals and 4 people with underlying medical condition (UMC) participated in this study. Participants were given PP-LILI stimuli twice a week over 3 weeks and followed with placebo stimuli over 3 weeks. This set of sessions was repeated 3 times. For analyses, fresh peripheral mononuclear cells from participants were stained with fluorescence-dye conjugated monoclonal antibodies and changes in populational compositions and IL-10 expression levels were observed by flow cytometry. Results: Distinct expression of IL-10 in lymphocytes was induced by PP-LILI from the second session in the healthy individuals. This induction was terminated during the following placebo sessions. PP-LILI induced activation of CD19(+) CD24(hi) CD38(hi) regulatory B cells in every session prior to induce the IL-10 in major lymphocytes. Activated regulatory B cells in the individuals with UMC decreased as same levels of healthy individuals after second PP-LILI session and re-activated with the stimuli. Significant population changes in neither regulatory T cells nor proinflammatory IL-17A expressing CD4(+) T cells were observed Conclusions: PP-LILI is a potent immunomodulatory inducer that activates regulatory B cells and consequent IL-10 expression in lymphocytes. Moreover, its stimulatory intervals down-regulate the higher activation of regulatory B cells and lymphocyte's IL-10 expression occurred by UMC to the healthy people's level.
Objective: Between a quarter and a third of adults with intellectual disability is estimated to have dental anxiety. Unpleasant stimuli, such as the injection of local anaesthesia or the noise and vibration of rotary instruments, may provoke anxiety and subsequent low compliance until the opposition to the treatment. The use of Er:YAG laser in conservative dentistry had a great development in these last years thank to new devices and also to their advantages when compared to the conventional instruments. The aim of this clinical study was to show the advantages of the Er:YAG laser in the conservative treatment of Special Care patients. Methods: Four cases are here described to show the Er:YAG laser use in our Unit on special needs patients. Results and conclusions: Based on the experience gained on conservative laser-assisted treatments performed in a time of 5 years at our Dentistry, Special Needs and Maxillo-Facial Surgery Unit we may affirm that Er:YAG laser may be considered as a good way to improve the cooperation, to reduce anxiety related to rotating instruments and to reach better results with equal or shorter operating times.
Background & aims: Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) accounts for most common complications of T2DM. Painful DPN is associated with functional limitation & poor quality of life. Therefore, objective of the study is to find the effect of low level laser therapy on painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Materials & methods: The study design is pre-post observational design. After obtaining ethical clearance and informed consent, 19 T2DM subjects were screened and confirmed for peripheral neuropathy in an outpatient setting with biochemical parameter, pain scale and Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI). Low Level Laser therapy was irradiated through scanning mode with dosage of 3.1J/cm² on the plantar and dorsum of the foot and 3.4j/cm² with contact method for 10days and all subjects were reassessed at the end of the 10 day. Descriptive statistics and paired' test was used to analyze the pre-post finding within the group. Level of significance was set at p <0.05. Results: The result analysis showed significant reduction in Pain using VAS scale (6.47 ± 0.84 to 1.21 ± 0.78 (p<0.001), MNSI (5.52 ± 1.26 to 2.71 ± 0.97 (<0.001). In addition we observed significant reduction in Vibration perception threshold (32.68 ± 6.08 to 24.84 ± 4.29 (<0.001) and a significant increase in the temperature from baseline to post intervention (30.01 ± 2.11 to 31.75 ± 1.03 (p<0. 001). Conclusions: In the present study, Low level laser therapy was found to be effective in type 2 DM with peripheral neuropathy.
Background and aims: Management of infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is becoming difficult due to the rapid emergence of multi-antibiotic resistant strains. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) has a lot of potential as an alternative approach for inactivation of antibiotic resistant bacteria. In this study we report results of our investigations on the effect of poly-L-lysine conjugate of chlorine p6 (pl-cp6) mediated APDT on the healing of P.aeruginosa infected wounds and the role of Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-kB) induced inflammatory response in this process. Material and methods: Excisional wounds created in Swiss albino mice were infected with ~10(7) colony forming units of P.aeruginosa. Mice with wounds were divided into three groups: 1) Uninfected, 2) Infected, untreated control (no light, no pl-cp6), 3) Infected, APDT. After 24 h of infection (day 1 post wounding), the wounds were subjected to APDT [pl-cp6 applied topically and exposed to red light (660 ± 25 nm) fluence of ~ 60 J/cm²]. Subsequent to APDT, on day 2 and 5 post wounding (p.w), measurements were made on biochemical parameters of inflammation [toll like receptor-4 (TLR-4), NF-kB, Inteleukin (IL)-[1α, IL-β, and IL-2)] and cell proliferation [(fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP)]. Results: In comparison with untreated control, while expression of TLR-4, NF-kB (p105 and p50), and proinflammatory interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-2) were reduced in the infected wounds subjected to APDT, the levels of FGF-2 and ALP increased, on day 5 p.w. Conclusions: The measurements made on the inflammatory markers and cell proliferation markers suggest that APDT reduces inflammation caused by P.aeruginosa and promotes cell proliferation in wounds.
Background and aims: WHO estimated 9 million new Tuberculosis cases and 1.5 million TB deaths in 2013. Globally 480000 Multi drug resistant tuberculosis cases were noted and majority of them were in India, China and Russian federation. Multi drug resistant tuberculosis cases are difficult to treat and have high mortality. Presently, it was aimed to assess prevalence of drug resistance in M. tuberculosis isolates in Central India, to check the in-vitro effect of N2 Laser on M. tuberculosis and to study the therapeutic effect of intra cavitary N2 laser on pulmonary Tuberculosis cases not responding to chemotherapy. Material and methods: Drug sensitivity testing was carried out on 567 isolates of M. tuberculosis by proportion method. To check the effect of N2 laser on M. tuberculosis, suspension spread on LJ plate and part of the plate exposed to N2 laser for 10 min and plate incubated for 4 weeks to see the effect. For exposure to lung cavity a needle was introduced into the lung through which fiber was passed to the cavity for N2 laser irradiation for 10 min. Results: Only 12.8% isolates of M. tuberculosis were sensitive to all anti-Tubercular drugs and 21.5% were found to be resistant to Rifampicin qualifying definition of Multi drug resistant tuberculosis. Bactericidal effect for N2 laser was seen in-vitro on exposure to N2 laser. Clinical improvement occurred in 90% of the 96 patients; 60% of the patients showed improvement on their X-rays and 75% turned out to be Acid fast bacilli smear negative in 4 to 15 days. Conclusions: Intra-cavitory N2 laser therapy was found to have remarkable success as an adjunct to chemotherapy.
Aim: To review the applications of low level laser therapy on various soft and hard oral tissues. A variety of therapeutic effects of Low Level Laser Therapy have been reported on a broad range of disorders. It has been found amenably practical in dental applications including soft as well as hard tissues of the oral cavity. LLLT has been found to be efficient in acceleration of wound healing, enhanced remodelling and bone repair, regeneration of neural cells following injury, pain attenuation, endorphin release stimulation and modulation of immune system. The aforementioned biological processes induced by Low level lasers have been effectively applied in treating various pathological conditions in the oral cavity. With is article, we attempt to review the possible application of Low Laser Therapy in the field of dentistry.