Background and aims: The sweat glands and peripheral vessels beneath the skin surface act as minute organs governed by the skin sympathetic nerves and have important physiological functions for body temperature control and nutrition support along with maintenance of a peripheral organization. Dynamics of the mental sweating of sweat glands and the peripheral vessels reflect the activity of a sympathetic nerve. The purpose of this paper is to study the dynamic observation and analysis of sweat glands and a peripheral vessels by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Materials and Methods: In the dynamic analysis of mental sweating of sweat glands, after confirmation of the resting state of the volunteer, mental stress was applied in the form of unpleasant sound for 0.5 sec; piled-up en-face OCT images of sweat glands were then obtained time-sequentially, with the frame-spacing of 3.3 sec. A swept-source (SS) OCT was used for in vivo en-face OCT of a group of sweat glands on the subject’s fingertip. Furthermore, we conducted in vivo dynamic analysis in response to external mental stress of a peripheral vessel in the second joint of the subject’s third finger using 1.3-μm SS OCT. Results: We analyzed time variation in the amount of excess sweat produced by a group of sweat glands and found a large difference in the amount of sweat stored by each sweat gland in the spiral lumen. Mental stress was also shown to cause the small artery of the finger to contract, reducing blood flow. In particular, the thickness of the tunica media of the small artery changed abruptly in response to the sound stress, increasing and then decreasing so that the artery contracted and expanded, respectively. Conclusions: Dynamic analysis of mental sweating in the eccrine sweat glands and changes in peripheral vessels was performed using time-sequential OCT imaging. For mental sweating, time variation in the amount of excess sweat produced could be simultaneously evaluated for a few tens of eccrine sweat glands. Furthermore, we performed the dynamic analysis of a peripheral vessel in a human finger in response to external mental stress and found that the small artery contracted and expanded in response to sound stress while continuing to pulse in synchronization with the heartbeat. These studies have the potential for establishing new knowledge about skin physiology.
Aims: Glutaraldehyde, CO2 and Er:YAG lasers can be used for treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. However, their application may have adverse effects on the clinical service of restorations. This study aimed to assess the microleakage in composite restorations following surface treatment with Glutaraldehyde desensitizer, CO2 and Er:YAG laser irradiation for treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. Material and methods: This experimental study was conducted on 60 extracted sound human teeth. Class V cavities were prepared measuring 3×3 mm using a diamond bur. Specimens were randomly divided into 4 groups of 15. Group one:no surface treatment, Group two:applying Glutaraldehyde desensitizer, Groups of three and four were irradiated with CO2 and Er:YAG lasers, respectively. Surfaces were restored with bonding agent(Single Bond 2, 3M, USA) and Z250 composite (3M,USA). Specimens were thermocycled and immersed in 1% methylene blue solution for 24 hours. Microleakage scores were assessed under a stereomicroscope at ×20 magnification. Data were analyzed using SPSS and the Kruskal Wallis test (P=0.05). Results: There was no significant difference between microleakage of groups in enamel margins (P=0.694). The difference in microleakage at the dentin margin was significant between groups (P=0.018). Conclusions: Application of Glutaraldehyde-desensitizer and CO2 laser irradiation of surfaces prior to composite restoration do not increase microleakage at the enamel or dentin margins but tooth surface treatment with Er:YAG laser significantly increased the microleakage at the dentin margins.
Subject and aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of diode laser-activated bleaching systems for color change of teeth. Materials and Methods: 40 premolars with intact enamel surfaces were selected for five external bleaching protocols (n=8). Two different wavelengths of diode laser (810 and 980 nm) with two different hydrogen peroxide concentrations (30% and 46%) were selected for laser bleaching. Group 1 received bleaching (Heydent- Germany) with a 810 nm diode laser; Group 2 received bleaching (Heydent- Germany) with a 980 nm diode laser; Group 3 received bleaching (laser white∗20- Biolase) with a 810 nm diode laser; Group 4 received bleaching (laser white∗20- Biolase) with a 980 nm diode laser, with an output power of 1.5 W, in continuous wave (cw) mode for each irradiation. Group 5 as control group received 40% hydrogen peroxide (Opalescence Boost, Ultradent-USA) with no light activation. The color of teeth was scored at baseline and 1 week after bleaching with spectrophotometer. Color change data on the CIEL∗a∗b∗ system were analyzed statistically by the one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD test. Results: All the bleaching techniques resulted in shade change. According to ΔE values, all techniques were effective to bleach the teeth (ΔE ≥ 3). Statistically significant differences were detected among bleaching protocols (p=0.06). Regarding shade change values expressed as ΔL∗, Δa∗, Δb∗, ΔE∗, laser bleached groups were no statistically different with each other (p>0.05). Conclusions: Bleaching with different wavelengths of diode laser resulted in the same results.
Background and Aims: Laser vaporization of the prostate is expected as a less invasive treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), via the photothermal effect. In order to develop safer and more effective laser vaporization of the prostate, it is essential to set optimal irradiation parameters based on quantitative evaluation of temperature distribution and thermally denatured depth in prostate tissue. Method: A simulation model was therefore devised with light propagation and heat transfer calculation, and the vaporized and thermally denatured depths were estimated by the simulation model. Results: The results of the simulation were compared with those of an ex vivo experiment and clinical trial. Based on the accumulated data, the vaporized depth strongly depended on the distance between the optical fiber and the prostate tissue, and it was suggested that contact laser irradiation could vaporize the prostate tissue most effectively. Additionally, it was suggested by analyzing thermally denatured depth comprehensively that laser irradiation at the distance of 3 mm between the optical fiber and the prostate tissue was useful for hemostasis. Conclusions: This study enabled quantitative and reproducible analysis of laser vaporization for BPH and will play a role in clarification of the safety and efficacy of this treatment.
Background and aims: The intervertebral disk degeneration is a pathological process determined by a decrease of mucopolysaccharides in the nucleus pulposus with the consequent dehydration and degeneration of the elastic fibers in the annulus fibrosus of the disk. The laser is a therapeutic tool that has, on the treated tissues, biostimulation effects with an increase of oxidative phosphorylation and production of ATP with an acceleration of the mucopolysaccharides synthesis with a consequent rehydration, biostimulation and production of new elastic fibers. The goal of this project is studying whether the laser stimulation may treat degenerated intervertebral disks. Materials and methods: 60 subjects with the same anthropometric parameters were selected and divided into two randomized groups. 30 subjects underwent laser stimulation, whereas 30 underwent placebo. All 60 subjects underwent a discectomy surgery and the intraoperative findings were examined in a lab, studying the positivity of the PAS reaction and the presence of potential newly formed elastic fibers. Results: It has been shown a higher number of mucopolysaccharides and young newly formed elastic fibers in the group that was treated with laser irradiation with a statistically significant difference, compared to the placebo group (p< 0.0001). Conclusions: Laser biostimulation can be an effective strategy in the therapy of the invertebral disks.
Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the retention rates of sealant placed either with conventional acid etching or Er,Cr:YSGG laser pretreatment of enamel surface. Material and methods: This is a prospective, single blind randomised controlled clinical trial enrolling 200 permanent first molars in 50 patients, aged 6-12 years for sealant placement. Study followed split mouth design where each side of the arch was randomly allocated to the two treatment group. Group A(Acid etch group): 37 % phosphoric acid (Scotchbond, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany) was applied for 15 seconds, rinsed with water for 20 seconds and then air-dried using air spray. Group L(Laser etch group): Fissures were prepared with an Er,Cr:YSGG laser system (Waterlase, BIOLASE Technology, San Clemente, CA, USA) emitting photons at a wavelength of 2.78 μm. Laser irradiation at 1.5 W (60% air and 40% water), in a noncontact mode, with a repetition rate of 20 Hz for 10seconds was used. Pit and fissure sealant (3M ESPE, Clinpro) was applied and cured for 20 seconds. One blinded, calibrated examiner, who was unaware of which preparation method has been used and who was not involved in the treatment procedures, evaluated the sealant at baseline and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 month follow-up visits. Results: It was observed that overall retention rate in group A was slightly higher as compared to group L at all time periods, however, the difference was statistically non-significant (p-value>0.05). Conclusion: Er,Cr:YSGG laser etching is comparable to acid etching in terms of retention and patient acceptability.
Aims: A combination of rose bengal (RB) and blue LED (BL) has emerged as a new technical modality for antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (a-PDT). The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of oxygen on the antimicrobial effect of RB + BL treatment on Porphyromonas gingivalis in vitro. Materials and Methods:P. gingivalis cells were treated with RB, BL (450-470 nm; 1 W/cm², 5 s), or RB + BL under anaerobic/aerobic conditions. Cells were incubated anaerobically, and the cell density (OD600 nm) was measured after 6-48 h. Additionally, cells were cultured anaerobically on blood agar plates for 9 days, and the resulting colonies were observed. Bacterial growth within 1 h of aerobic RB + BL treatment was examined, and RNA degradation due to anaerobic/aerobic RB + BL treatment was measured after 3 h of culture. Results: Under anaerobic conditions, RB + BL significantly suppressed bacterial growth after 18 h; however, the growth after 48 h and the number of colonies after 9 days were similar to those of the untreated control. RNA degradation in the anaerobic-treatment group was not significantly different from that in the control. Under aerobic conditions, RB + BL immediately affected bacterial growth and completely inhibited growth for up to 48 h. Few colonies were detected even after 9 days of culture, and RNA was completely degraded. Conclusions: Unlike the bacteriostatic effect of anaerobic treatment, aerobic RB + BL treatment may have a bactericidal action via a-PDT effect, resulting in the destruction of RNA and bacterial cells within a short period.