Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of surface treatment by bur and laser and application of universal adhesive on repair bond strength of composite resin. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 composite blocks measuring 6x4x4 mm were fabricated of Filtek Z250 composite. All samples were subjected to 5,000 thermal cycles and divided into two groups for surface preparation by bur and by Er,Cr:YSGG laser (n = 60). The surfaces were then etched with orthophosphoric acid, rinsed with water and divided into three groups (silane, silane plus Single Bond and silane plus Single Bond Universal). Repair composite was then bonded to aged composite. Half of the samples in each group were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours and the other half underwent 5000 thermal cycles. All samples were then subjected to shear bond strength testing using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD test. Mode of failure was determined using a stereomicroscope. Results: Bur preparation plus universal adhesive yielded the highest bond strength (30.16 ± 2.26 MPa). Laser plus silane yielded the lowest bond strength (5.63 ± 2.43 MPa). Bur preparation yielded significantly higher bond strength than laser (P < 0.001). Also, application of universal adhesive significantly improved bond strength compared to conventional adhesive and silane (P < 0.001). Bond strength after aging (5000 thermal cycles) had no significant difference with primary bond strength at 24 hours within each group (P = 0.182). Conclusion:Surface preparation of aged composite by bur and application of universal adhesive can improve the repair bond strength of composite. Application of silane (without adhesive) in the process of repair cannot provide adequately high repair bond strength.
Background and Aim: Wisdom teeth remains impacted in the jaw due to several reasons and surgery of impacted wisdom teeth is one of the most common surgeries in dental clinics. Pain, swelling and trismus are the common complications after this surgery which affect quality of life. In articles, various methods are introduced to control immediate inflammatory-response associated with third-molar surgery. The aim of this study is to evaluate the adjunctive effect of low-level laser Therapy on pain, swelling and trismus after surgical removal of impacted lower third molar. Material and Methods: This double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted on two groups of 24 patients (age range of 18-35) that had referred to surgical ward of Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences for surgery of their mandibular third molar(2015-16). All the subjects were systemically healthy and had at least one impacted mandibular third molar. After surgery, in experimental group, the laser was applied intraorally (inside the tooth socket) and extraorally (at the insertion point of the masseter muscle) immediately after surgery in contact with the target area for 25 seconds each. The laser energy was 2.5 J per area with an energy density of 5 J/ cm² at the surface of the probe (spot size= 0.5 cm²). In the other group, as the control group, it was pretended to radiate. Trismus, pain, and swelling were evaluated on the first and seventh days after surgery. The obtained data were evaluated using SPSS 16 software and independent samples T-test. Findings: In the group where LLLT had been used, P> 0.05 was calculated for pain, swelling, and trismus on days 1 and 7 after surgery that was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Under limitations of this study, using low-power laser with mentioned parameters, clinically reduces pain, swelling and trismus after surgical removal of impacted mandibular wisdom, but not statistically significant.
Background and aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on radial bone fracture gap healing in a rabbit model. Materials (Subjects) and Methods: Thirty male white New Zealand rabbits under general anesthesia had a 3mm slice of radial bone surgically removed. Fifteen rabbits were treated by 830 nm laser at 4 J/cm² and 15 were used as non-treated controls. Callus development was assessed by Xray and radiographs every 7 days for 3 weeks. Results: Significant radiologic changes were observed in both groups against time (P < 0.001) or from week to week (P < 0.05). However, there was no statistical difference in radiologic scores after week 2 (P = 0.087) or week 3 (P = 0.077) between control and laser treated bone. Conclusion:Findings suggest that in this study, laser treatment did not enhance callus formation nor reduce repair time of complete fracture of the radius in rabbits.
Background and Objectives: Adhesive restorations have become highly popular in pediatric dentistry, and novel methods of cavity preparation with minimal patient discomfort including Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser preparations have greatly advanced. This study aimed to compare the microleakage of composite restorations of class V cavities prepared in primary canine teeth with high-speed bur and Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers. Materials and Methods: This in vitro study was conducted on 30 class V cavities prepared on the buccal surfaces of primary canine teeth in three groups (n = 10) of bur preparation, Er:YAG laser and Er,Cr:YSGG laser. The cavities were etched, bonded and restored with Grandio flowable composite according to the manufacturer’s instructions. After thermocycling, the teeth were immersed in 1% methylene blue dye for 24 hours to detect microleakage. The teeth were evaluated under a stereomicroscope at X32 magnification to assess the depth of penetration of methylene blue. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 19 and non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney tests. Results: Non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test showed no significant difference in dye penetration among the three groups (P > 0.05). Pairwise comparisons of occlusal and gingival margins by nonparametric Mann Whitney test revealed no significant difference in microleakage either (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Use of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers can decrease microleakage to the level of bur preparation. Bur and laser cavity preparations are not significantly different in terms of microleakage at the enamel or dentin margins. Thus, considering the advantages of laser, it may serve as a suitable alternative to bur preparation in pediatric dentistry.
Background and Objectives: From year 2003 we treated positively 251 patients with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injuries (TSCI), using Non-Surgical Laser Therapy (NSLT). In order to increase muscle strength, we have also started using a physical therapy practice called Grimaldi’s Muscle Shortening Manoeuvre (GMSM) The goal of our study is to obtain objective data suggesting the real effectiveness of the association of these two treatments. Study Design and Methods: In 2015, 10 patients with incomplete TSCI were enrolled. Further 10 subjects with similar features were included as control group. All patients have subtotal sensory loss and motor paralysis below the level of the lesion. Lasers used were 808, 10600, and 1064 nm, applied with a first cycle of four sessions per day for a total of 20 sessions. The patients participated in specific physical therapy training (GMSM) twice a day, for a total of eight sessions. Each cycle of laser and GMSM was replicated each month. Results: Results were considered positive if sensitivity increased at least two dermatomes per cycle under the level of the lesion. Results in muscle activity (on/off) were regarded as positive if sEMG showed modifications in CNS-muscle. Objective assessment of force displayed encouraging results. After each cycle, patients showed improvements in motor function and voluntary command. Follow-up is positive after 3 months. Conclusion: Associating laser treatment and Grimaldi’s Muscle Shortening Manoeuvre (MSM) seems to be effective on muscle strength and motor control in patients affected by subtotal SCI compared to a control group.
Chronic lower extremity ulcers (CLEUs) have a high prevalence and are difficult to treat due to their various aetiologies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the results achieved in treating CLEUs using an Erbium: YAG (Er:YAG) laser with RecoSMA technology. This laser emits thousands of microbeams of energy causing superficial epidermal ablation and a separation of dermal fibres due to a mechanical-acoustic and resonance effect. The evaluation of the results achieved was carried out by questionnaires completed by 18 patients enrolled in the study. Histological studies and photographs taken before each session (16 sessions in total) were analysed to visually monitor the clinical progress. The analyses were carried out with the help of computer software. The results after 16 treatment sessions showed the complete healing of ulcers or a decrease in their initial area of at least 55% in over 65% of the patients treated. The Student’s t-test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analysis. The Er:YAG laser and RecoSMA technology ablates few epidermal cell layers, producing a mechanical-acoustic effect with resonance action leading to tissue regeneration mechanisms. This technology offers an effective and safe alternative for treating CLEUs.
Aim: The appropriate management of Medication-Related OsteoNecrosis of the Jaw (MRONJ) is still a challenge for dentists and oral surgeons and in these last years high-technology instruments have been proposed at the different steps of interventions, also combined with promoters of tissue repair. The aim of this report Methods: It is described the case of a patient positive for MRONJ observed at the Odontostomatology and Maxillo-Facial Surgery Unit of the Hospital of Piacenza where surgical approach was performed by using different devices: Er:YAG laser (2940 nm) to remove and vaporize necrotic hard tissue until bleeding bone; Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) to stimulate hard and soft tissue healing; diode laser (808 nm) to biostimulate the surgical site. Results: At the time of suture removal, wound closure was observed and the complete healing of the MRONJ site was observed for the 2 years follow up. Conclusion:This case may suggest that this kind of combined approach during all the steps of MRONJ treatment allows to perform a faster and less invasive surgery with a more comfortable postoperative healing process and it represents an innovative approach in this severe adverse event.