Background and aims: Recently, novel picosecond pulse duration lasers (ps-lasers) have been developed
for the treatment of multicolored and recalcitrant tattoos, and safety and efficacy have been reported.
We therefore hypothesized that ps-lasers could be an alternative treatment for dermal pigmented lesions.
We performed a retrospective review to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the ps-laser for nevus of
Ota. Subjects and methods: A retrospective photographic review of 15 patients with nevus of Ota was performed (ages from 10 months to 65 yr). The patients were treated in the Ohshiro Clinic with a picosecond-
domain 755 nm alexandrite laser (ps-Alex laser) from June 2015 to August 2017. Improvement was evaluated as the percentage of pigmentation clearance comparing the baseline findings with those at 3 months after the final treatment using a four category grading scale: Poor, 0-24%; Fair, 25-49%; Good, 50-74%; and Excellent 75-100% improvement. Adverse events were also assessed. Results: All patients obtained clinical improvement ranging from fair to excellent. All 5 patients whose primary treatment was the ps-Alex laser obtained excellent in 2-3 treatment sessions (average 2.5 sessions), and the average total treatment span was 10.0 months. Treatment with the ps-Alex laser caused transient hyperpigmentation followed by improvement to complete resolution at 3 months of follow-up. Conclusions: Our results suggest that 755 nm ps laser treatment is efficacious for the treatment of nevus of Ota with minimum adverse events.
Background and aims: Conventional fungal treatment using external medication requires considerable
time and effort. We herein examined the basic effect of methylene blue (MB) with sodium bicarbonate
(NaHCO3) on Candida albicans sterilization using photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT). Materials and methods: NaHCO3 was added to MB to establish a basic pH. Then, C. albicans was
smeared on a medium with basic MB followed by irradiation using a red light-emitting diode (LED) with
a wavelength of 660 nm. The applied energy fluencies were 5, 10, 15, and 20 J/cm2. After 48 h of culture,
the effects of the intervention were determined according to the fungal growth area. Results: The basic effect appeared at a pH range of 8.6 to 8.9 and at 10 and 15 J/cm2, while the NaHCO3 concentration was between 1% and 2%. Conclusions: Our results suggested that PACT using basic MB was effective for C. albicans sterilization.
Purpose: Dentin hypersensitivity is characterized by short, sharp pain arising from exposed dentin in
response to external stimuli. Several modalities have been suggested for treatment of this condition such
as low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and application of dentin bonding agents. The aim of this study was to
compare the clinical efficacy of diode laser, Nd:YAG laser and dentin bonding agent for treatment of
dentin hypersensitivity. Materials and Methods: In this study, 135 teeth of 22 patients diagnosed with dentin hypersensitivity were divided into three groups: In group 1, the teeth were irradiated by diode laser with 810 nm wavelength for 30 seconds and in group 2, the teeth were irradiated by Nd:YAG laser with 1064 nm wavelength for 40 seconds. CLEARFIL SE BOND was applied on teeth in group 3. LLLT was carried out in 3 sessions
with 7-day intervals between sessions, during a period of 3 consecutive weeks. Hypersensitivity was assessed
by cold test according to the criteria proposed by Uchida at baseline, immediately after treatment
and at 1, 3 and 6 months, postoperatively. Results: Reduction of dentin hypersensitivity was observed at 3 and 6 months following the use of Nd:YAG laser (p <0.001). Reduction in dentin hypersensitivity was observed immediately after treatment in all groups. Statistically significant differences in level of dentin hypersensitivity were found between groups at 3 and at 6 months (p≤0.001). The reduction in dentin hypersensitivity by Nd:YAG laser was significantly superior to that in other groups at this time. Conclusion: The efficacy of Nd:YAG laser in reduction of dentin hypersensitivity was significantly superior to that of other modalities at 3 and 6 months.
Background and Aims: Bioglass (BG) and Magnesium (Mg) composites have been used for bone tissue
engineering proposes due to its osteogenic activity and increased mechanical properties respectively. The
introduction of Collagen (Col) is a common and efficient approach for bone tissue engineering applications
toward cell proliferation. Recently, studies demonstrated that BG/Col/Mg composites presented
proper mechanical properties and were non-cytotoxic. Although the osteogenic potential of BG/Col/Mg
composites, in specific situations, biomaterials may not be capable of stimulating bone tissue. Therefore,
combining biomaterial matrices and effective post-operative therapies (such as low level lasertherapy;
LLLT) may be necessary to appropriately stimulate bone tissue. In this context, the aim of this study was
to develop intra- and extra-operatively bone regenerative therapeutical strategies, based on the association
of Col-enriched BG/Mg composites with LLLT. Materials and Methods: Thereby, an in vivo study, using tibial defect in Wistar rats, was performed in order to investigate the bone regenerative capacity. LLLT treatment (Ga-Al-As laser 808 nm, 30 mW, 2.8 J, 94 s) was performed 3 times a week, in non-consecutive days. Histology, histomorphometry, immunohistochemical analysis and mechanical test were done after 15 and 45 days post-implantation. Results: The results showed that Col could be successfully introduced into BG/Mg and the association of BG/Mg/Col and LLLT constituted an optimized treatment for accelerating material degradation and increasing bone deposition. Additionally, mechanical tests showed an increased maximal load for BG/Mg + LLLT compared to other groups. Conclusions: These results lead us to conclude that the Col enriched BG/Mg composites irradiated with LLLT presented superior biological and mechanical properties, demonstrating to be a promising bone graft.
Background and Aims: Facial rejuvenation has become an increasingly patient-driven procedure with
speedy but significant results and minimal downtime being the holy grail of both patient and practitioners.
Fractional techniques with both laser and radiofrequency sources have attracted attention with
some good results, but still with some downtime. Combination therapy could offer the best points of the
separate techniques to give synergistic results with minimal downtime. The present pilot mini-study investigated
the safety and efficacy of facial rejuvenation with a combination of microneedling fractional
radiofrequency (MFR) and fractional minimally-invasive thulium laser (FTL) treatment. Subjects and Methods: Four Korean females, ages from 53-63 yr (mean age 58.25), Fitzpatrick skin type
III-IV with mild to moderate photoaging-related sequelae participated in the study. On the first pass an MFR
system was used with insulated microneedles to deliver a single pass of RF energy to a depth of 1.5 mm -1
mm in the dermis (7.5 W, 30 ms exposure). This was immediately followed by an FTL (5 W, 10 mJ) with 2-3
passes over the whole face, and a further 4-5 passes over the target wrinkles. This was repeated for 6 treatment
sessions with 2-weekly intervals, and with a follow-up of 16 weeks after the final session. An analytical
digital clinical imaging system captured gross and analytical images, and an independently-scored Physician
Global Assessment (PGA) scale was used to assess efficacy in addition to patient satisfaction. Results: Apparent smoothing of wrinkles and general improvement in skin condition was seen following the 3rd to 4th sessions. At the 16-week assessment very clear improvement was seen both with the naked
eye and with specific analytical software from the imaging system. The total mean PGA score was 3.35
(out of 4), and all patients were extremely satisfied with the results. No adverse events were reported and
pain was minimal. Conclusions: The combination of MFR and FTL was safe and effective, and produced synergistic results in skin rejuvenation in the Asian skin type which were judged to be better than either system used on its own.
Further larger population, split-face and controlled trials are warranted to confirm these optimistic results.
Antibacterial Photodynamic therapy (APDT) is a process utilizing light and light sensitive agents (named
photosensitizer (PS)) and is usually applied in an oxygen-rich environment.
The energy of the photons is absorbed by the photosensitizer and subsequently transferred to surrounding
molecules. Consequently, reactive oxygen species and free radicals are formed. These oxidative molecules
can damage bacterial macromolecules such as proteins, lipids and nucleic acids and may result in
bacterial killing. Unlike antibiotics, APDT as a novel technique does not lead to the selection of mutant
resistant strains, hence it has appealed to researchers in this field.
The type of PS used in APDT is a major determinant regarding outcome. In this review, various types of
PS that are used in antimicrobial Photodynamic therapy will be discussed. PSs are classified based on their
chemical structure and origin. Synthetic dyes such as methylene blue and toluidine blue are the most
commonly used photosensitizers in Antibacterial Photodynamic therapy (APDT). Other photosensitizers
including natural PSs (e.g. curcumin and hypericin) and tetra-pyrrole structures like phthalocyanines and
porphyrins have also been studied. Furthermore, nanostructures and their probable contribution to APDT
will be discussed.