Degenerative joint disease (DJD), in particular in the knee, is difficult to cure successfully at present, often requiring surgical intervention. In addition, the chronic DJD patient often exhibits symptoms of both a physiological and psychological nature. A study is presented using low reactive-level laser therapy (LLLT) with an 830 nm infrared continuous wave gallium aluminium arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser. with an output power of 60 mW, in light contact laser therapy for a population of 40 patients (power density of approximately 3 W/cm2). Four points around the patella were irradiated for 60 s each (energy density of 18 J/cm2 per point, total of 72 J/cm2 per session) two sessions per week for eight weeks, Radiological, pain score and joint mobility assessments were made before the first session, immediately after, and at 4 months after the final LLLT session. All other medication and physical therapy was discontinued at least 15 days prior to the first treatment session. Thirty-three patients (82%) reported significant removal of pain and recovery of articular joint mobility. The remaining seven patients felt there was no significant effect following LLLT, and returned to their original pretherapy medication. The side effects were minimal, LLLT is concluded to be a safe, effective and noninvasive alternative to conventional surgical and medical treatment modalities for DJD patients.
A study on the effect of low level laser therapy on acute headache syndromes was undertaken. Ten patients with acute vascular headache or occipital neuralgia were treated with low power laser over tender trigger points in the distribution of the second cervical and trigeminal nerves, Each tender point was stimulated for 30-40 s with low level laser therapy. There was a statistically significant decrease in headache when reassessed at 15 min. Although not statistically significant, low level laser therapy also appears to have a beneficial effect on associated autonomic symptoms.
Experiments were performed on six batches of Wistar inbred rats with Walker-256 carcinosarcoma 7 days post-transplantation. Animals from batches I and II were exposed to photofrin II (20 mg/kg body mass) or HeNe laser (10 mW; 632.8 nm), respectively; the animals in the batches III-V were given photofrin II, intraperitoneally, 24 h before 60-min laser treatment; one, three and six photofrin/laser treatments, respectively, were applied at an interval of 3 days. The control batch (batch VI) consisted of animals presenting with untreated Walker-256 tumours. The results were as follows: photofrin II or HeNe laser alone (photoexposure to low doses of 15 J/cm2) had no significant effects on tumoural volume and the survival of the rats. Photoexposure to multiple doses of PDT led to complete regression of tumoural volume (65.8%); the cure rate was 31.5% and concomitantly survival rates increased, Cell-mediated immunity tests (performed at 7 and 28 days post-treatment) underlined superior values in batch IV and V animals photoexposed to multiple PDT doses, in comparison with immuno-suppression noticed in batches I-III and the control batch VI. Data presented in this work demonstrate that photodynamic treatment exposure using multiple doses stimulates cell-mediated antitumoural activity. Induces modifications in tumoural histological structure, increases survival rates and reduces tumoural incidence in Walker-256 carcinosarcoma in the rat model.
In vitro cellular and in vivo animal studies have pointed to the possible boosting effect of Low reactive-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) on the autoimmune system of immunodeficient cancer-inoculated animals, resulting in an increase in the expected life-span of the irradiated animals. Following such studies, the authors designed a study to evaluate the effect of LLLT as an adjunctive therapy for conventional surgical intervention in cancer in man. A comparative study of different types of irradiation from low incident energy level lasers was performed on 60 oncologic patients, irradiation being delivered during the immediate preoperative period, External irradiation with a semiconductor laser (wavelength 890 nm); internal irradiation with a helium-neon laser (wavelength 632.8 nm); and a combination of both methods was applied. The most effective irradiation was the external one made with a semiconductor laser, Studies were carried out on white cell components in blood, assays of immunoglobulin activity (IgA, IgM and IgG) were made, in addition to the determination of the behaviour ot' T-lymphocyte fractions (active roseate T-cells, T-helpers and T-suppressors) post LLLT. It was seen from the data that the total immunoresponse actually increased following LLLT, with no visible increase in tumoural remnant size. Although more detailed qualitative experimentai and controlled work must be done before this application of LLLT can be carried out on a regular basis, the authors feel strongly that in this preliminary report. the findings point to an exciting and possible use for LLLT. in particular for the photoactivation of the autoimmune system and tumoural antigen photomodification, and in general for the treatment of immunodeficiency.
With the increase in acceptance of low reactive-level laser therapy. or LLLT, as a valid medicoscientific subset, there is a corresponding increase in the number of papers appearlng in the literature. Unfortunately, the majority of these papers are marred by inaccurate and inconsistent reporting of parameters, and incorrect use of inappropriate terminology. The correct and accepted scientific units and their use in describing an experiment or clinical application are next discussed: the orthodox reporting of the incident laser power in watts or milliwatts; the spot size or irradiated area in square centimetres; the exposure time in seconds: and the incident energy, measured in joules; and their derivative terms, power density: energy; and energy density are examined, The importance of correct and accurate reporting of experimental parameters to enable repetition by another worker in the field is stressed. The author suggests that the disparity in parameter reporting can probably account for the different results from different groups working on the ‘same’ experiment. Ideas on a scientifically-based terminology are presented, including the pedigree of the term LLLT itself for the clinical therapy, and the general term of bioactivation to cover the study of the effects of LLLT at an in vitro level. The author concludes that correct and accurate reporting of well-designed LLLT studies in an acceptable and consistent terminology will help to solidify the acceptance of LLLT in the medicoscientific community.
Cerebral vasospasm (VS) is a major complication following a subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) after the rupture of a cerebral aneurysm. Many factors are involved, but many authors are now focusing on an imbalance between vasodilator and vasoconstrictor metabolites originating from the haemolysis of the subarachnoid clot. In the reported study. as a step towards establishing a multifactorial SAH therapy, we tried in a controlled experiment to enhance rat brain superoxide dismutase (SOD), EC 22.214.171.124., the natural scavenger of superoxide radicals, either by helium neon (HeNe) laser irradiation on the sinciput of rats, or by direct intravenous administration of SOD solution. In both cases we obtained a marked increase of brain total SOD, compared with the control animals and those who had simulated (sham) treatment.