This study was performed to investigate the biostimulation effects of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on the fungus, Candida albicans, according to the interval of irradiation during the cell cycle. Samples were randomly divided into 5 groups : pulse 7 with 2 hour interval (P7-2Hr), pulse 7 with 4 hour interval (p7-4Hr), pulse 15 with 2 hour interval (P15-2Hr), pulse 15 with 4 hour interval (P15-4Hr) and control (Co). Each of the experimental samples was irradiated for 1 minute with a 2 hour interval, or for 2 minutes with a 4 hour interval, during 28 hours of the cell cycle of C. albicans, and the optical density of the cultures as a marker of cell growth was assessed by spectrophotometry every 2 hours. It was found that there was a significant difference in cell growth between the 2 hour and 4 hour interval laser irradiation groups in favour of the 4 hour groups, although the total energy of both groups using an identical pulse setting was equal during the study. There was also a significant difference between the 4 hour interirradiation groups and the control group, but no significant difference between the 2 hour interirradiation groups and the control group. It is, therefore, concluded that frequent irradiation sessions using a short interirradiation interval with LLLT on cells do not induce any significant biostimulation effect on the cell growth at optimal dose or even at low doses of LLLT, and that an appropriate irradiation interval is required for the acceleration of cell growth.
Seven cases of peripheral facial palsy, who were patients of our hospital’s dermatological clinic, were treated with diode low reactive-level laser therapy (LLLT) while another seven cases, who were patients of our hospital’s otolaryngological clinic, were treated with a combination therapy consisting of LLLT and corticosteroid therapy, over the past one and half years. The clinical efficacy of the two regimens has been analyzed so that the comparison could be made utilizing a separate corticosteroid therapy group as the control. Those patients who had received LLLT showed a very similar overall recovery from the palsy when compared to those treated with corticosteroid, however those patients who had received the combination therapy showed the best recovery in the shortest period. No clinically significant adverse effect resulting from the LLLT was noted. Our results suggest that LLLT would be a suitable alternative treatment for those facial palsy patients for whom corticosteroid is not manageable, and furthermore that LLLT would be an ideal adjunctive treatment for those facial palsy patients for whom corticosteroid therapy is manageable.
While there are some controversies and uncertainties about the effectiveness of LLLT in acute tissue disease and damage situations and some uncertainty about penetration, scatter and reflection effects of laser light, most do not apply to the progressive condition of chronic lymphoedema. In this study patients with moderate to severe chronic lymphoedema associated with axillary clearance and radiotherapy received 16 LLLT treatment sessions each of 2 ∼4 J/cm2 over a period of 10 weeks. Each patient was their own control with the contralateral arm being used as a base reference point. The progression of LLLT was monitored fortnightly by circumference measurement, plethysmography, tonometry and bio-impedance as well as by subjective questioning of the patients. At the end of the 10 week period, oedema volumes decreased by an average of 19%, the lymphoedematous tissues progressively softened, the ECF volume significantly decreased and patients reported significant progressive improvements in aches and pains, tightness, heaviness, cramps, pins and needles, mobility and perception of circumference. The results show that when we are dealing with evaluation of treatment efficacy, we must not only present and interpret quantitative results but also the qualitative ones relating to the patient's quality of life. With declining health budgets, the cost of treatment is also a crucial issue. The cost of LLLT treatment in a public hospital was estimated at AU $16 per percentage point reduction compared with approximately AU $60 per percentage point reduction with the multifaceted complex physical therapy programs. LLLT is thus a cost effective strategy for the treatment of chronic lymphoedema.
Standardization and quantification are vital in every comparative study in medicine and biology. The instrumentation and methods used for achieving these purposes in our investigations into various aspects of low-power lasers and injuries to peripheral nerves (PN) are described. The system enables quantified and localized manoeuvers and measurements in handy, small animal models and can be easily adapted to other procedures. The sciatic nerve of rats was used as the in vivo model. Haemostatic forceps, fitted with calibrated strain gauges, were used to inflict pore-planed, quantified and localized crush injuries upon the nerve. The electrical activity in the nerve before, during and after various treatments was measured in vivo using a multiple electrode rack that enabled stimulation and recording of action potential (AP). Examples of tests using the recommended instrumentation and methods are described. These tests enable us, due to the use of standard tools and methods, to assess and compare the efficiency of red, green and infra-red lasers in nerve stimulation and regeneration. Some of the highly significant effects are mentioned.