In higher education, experiential learning is one of the effective educational practices, and includes service-learning, internships, co-operative education, project-based learning, and so on. Recently, it has been revealed that reflection plays a significant role in experiential learning. The previous model for reflection in experiential learning did not integrate action and thinking. These models provided a normative process for experiential learning or reflection but they did not coincide with actual reflective processes. However, the remaining issue for the models of reflection was to develop theoretical accounts for the process of reflection combining action. This article clarifies the relationship between reflection-on-action and reflection-in-action in terms of process and sequence. I constructed a taxonomy of action and reflection, which consists of objects (action, thinking, and emotion) and contexts (time and its orientation). The analysis of the reflection process is enabled by using these categories and integrating them into experiential education. Examining the reflective narratives from previous research articles, this taxonomy enables researchers and practitioners to clarify the characters of these narratives. Focusing on these categories depends on teaching practices that include social norms, instructional design, and the repertoires of practitioners. Therefore, the analysis of students’ reflection processes requires teachers’ self-reflection on their own practices. Furthermore, these analyses require consideration of how the self and society influence reflection processes.
This paper investigates the challenges and constraints faced by Japan-based international development NGOs when they are engaged in development education programs, and highlights possible measures to overcome these challenges and constraints. The study methods consist of interviews with key staff member in charge of development education programs at six NGOs that are actively engaged in development education programs and a desk-based analysis of education materials and programs developed by these NGOs. The study results show that Japanese NGOs face four kinds of challenges and constraints, namely: difficulties securing funds for development education programs; lack of capacity and expertise for developing relevant education materials and programs; difficulties in promoting their materials and programs as well as ensuring quality in the practice of education programs; and, problems in effectively evaluating education materials and programs. The author observes that these challenges are interconnected, which results in a vicious circle. The study illustrates various effective measures taken by some Japanese NGOs to overcome these four challenges. Among these measures are: ensuring an emphasis on principles of social justice within an NGO’s mission and vision; and, establishing meaningful linkages between issues in developing countries and issues in Japan.
Schooling has been regarded as a ‘social vaccine’ against HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. However, this statement has been seen as a controversial matter in previous literature. Some studies mention that schooling can contribute to reducing the risk of HIV infection, while others counter that schooling is one of the causes that contributes to the spread of the virus. Those studies seem to have the common opinion that schooling offers information about HIV/AIDS; however, the issue is that having that information does not necessarily influence sexual activity. Therefore, it is necessary to focus on individual backgrounds in the process by which the information leads to a change in behavior in order to discuss the relationship between schooling and HIV/AIDS. This research, which employed a case study approach and data collection at Busia County in Kenya, was conducted during an internship at a local NGO for three months from August to November 2016. The study employed participant observation at a school and interviews with young women as part of the action research. Analysis of the data revealed that schooling has two opposite functions. The risk of HIV infection and the risk of pregnancy among young women are very different depending on the kinds of sexual relationships, even though both are caused by unprotected sexual intercourse. The relationships among the same generation at the school were relatively safe because the school emphasized the importance of abstinence while they were students. On the other hand, the relationships outside the school to obtain money required young women to be involved in unsafe sexual behavior. Even though they understood the risk of HIV infection caused by such relationships, it was difficult for them to get condoms because ‘they are not for students.’ The school has certainly worked to protect students from HIV/AIDS and risky sexual behavior. However, those students who are involved in riskier sexual relationships cannot protect themselves because of their status as students.
This paper will study endogenous development in international cooperation with developing countries, a concept proposed by Tsurumi Kazuko, a sociologist from Japan, and examines the possibility of the realization of such an approach. It will focus on the ‘key person,’ who is considered an important driver in this approach. Tsurumi’s theory was announced in 1976 as an alternative approach in the context of the existing mode of development cooperation with the south. The theory is meant to address problems of development, such as the economic disparity between north and south, poverty and the serious degradation of the environment resulting from the processes of globalization, modernization, and economic development. It argues that the process of the modern development of Western Europe was endogenous, and likewise, there also should be endogenous processes in the development of other regions of the globe. The author brings into discussion the existence of the ‘key person’ as the driver of such processes of development. In order to understand the motive force behind the key person’s drive, a survey was made to determine the key person’s life history and some particular psychological characteristics. The survey suggests that such a key person would have undergone a critical turning point in the course of her/his life from which personal values were defined and goals were set. Further, she/he would have made a degree of effort that required personal sacrifice. In addition, such a key person would have faced ‘external agency’ as one factor in her/his turning point, which is an aspect given importance in the process of endogenous development. The study also suggests the possibility that the key person would have a high level of satisfaction during her/his early years with respect to ‘self-esteem needs.’
The Confucius Institute Project has been functioning out all over the world since 2004. This project aims to disseminate Chinese language and culture around the word. In recent years, with the significant increase in Chinese direct investment in Africa, the need for Chinese language education has continued to grow up. To fulfil this need, the Chinese government has been promoting the project and supporting the establishment of more Confucius Institutes in Africa. Every year, hundreds of university graduates or postgraduate students are dispatched to Africa as Chinese volunteer teachers. This paper, taking the Confucius Institutes in Kenya as a case study, aims to address the impact of Confucius Institutes in Kenya on the career paths of Chinese volunteer teachers and Kenyan students. Based on the interviews it was found that for both Kenyan students and Chinese volunteer teachers the experience of teaching or studying in Confucius Institutes may enhance their employability. This is because they can master various skills which are required in job-hunting such as Chinese language and communication skills and practical experience. Furthermore, a Confucius Institute can be set up and work with the cooperation of a Chinese university and a foreign university. The Confucius Institutes are not only providing Chinese language education, but are also playing a key role in enhancing and activating international cooperation between Chinese and African universities.
The English education program in Japan’s elementary schools began in 2011 as a foreign language activity that was intended for the fifth and sixth grades. From 2020, English will become a regular school subject for fifth and sixth graders in elementary school. Also, it will be part of the foreign language activities program for the 3rd and 4th grade in elementary school. In this way, English language education tends to be an important part of early-childhood education. For this reason, many are interested in English education for children and have an interest in it for the local communities. The residents in Mikedai, located in Semboku New Town in the southern part of Osaka Prefecture, have invited foreigners to participate in an activity called “English Village.” The organizer for the “English Village” is “the Mikedai Machizukuri Committee,” and since its inauguration the program has been conducted nine times since 2011. “English village” had the following goals for participants: (1) To experience the joy of communication in a foreign language; and (2) To experience communication with people from different cultures and to further their understanding of different cultures. International students from neighboring universities have participated as volunteers and have cooperated with the local residents who also worked as volunteers. In this article, I report on the efforts and results of foreign language activities for children in the area by analyzing the narratives of participants, foreign volunteers, and the volunteers from the community, focusing on the ninth activity in 2016.