A fast algorithm is described for detecting the human face symmetry rate, an important feature of the human face. Symmetry rates can be obtained simultaneously not only for the full face, but also for each feature (eyes, nose, mouth, etc.). This algorithm rejects the nose's shadow, which is an obstacle to obtaining the symmetry rate. First, the target face is divided into six vertical blocks, and the center of gravity of each block is calculated. The principal axis of the face is determined from the obtained gravity centers by using linear approximation (minimum mean square error estimation). Rejection of shadows and rotation of the principal axis to make it perpendicular to the horizontal axis are done next. Finally, the symmetry rate is calculated. Rejection of any moles on the face due to the shadow rejection is prevented by using a circular rate. This algorithm includes real part-only synthesis in order to obtain a high-efficiency fast calculation. Simulation examples showed that it is effective for quickly determining the symmetry rate of a human face.
In this paper, CDM is applied to the digital terrestrial broadcasting system based on OFDM. This proposed system could provide both common and local area services by using CDM for local broadcasting. Proposed system can be easily adapted to OFDM digital terrestrial broadcasting system, which proposed by Japanese BST-OFDM ISDB-T, by adding only one spread spectrum block. Moreover, we will get advantages from this adaptation, such as spectrum efficiency, simultaneous common and local area broadcasting. Performance of proposed system is shown that high data rates can be served. Its performance is better than FDM system and better performance can be reached by using sectorization and Walsh codes in proposed system. From results, different multimedia services can be supported by the proposed system that applied in different bandwidths.
Fuzzy clustering has been developed as an effective way of searching for a video by using a query or by browsing a video database. Each video in the database is segmented into shots by fuzzy clustering on the basis of the coarse color composition of frames. The type of shot boundaries, i.e., whether the change is discontinuous (called a cut boundary) or continuous (such as fade and wipe), can be detected by variation in the membership values at the boundary.Every video is summarized by a set of representative images of its shots. Fuzzy clustering is also used for searching for a target video by browsing a video database. In this search, representative images of shots are displayed and one of them is selected if it is the target video. The display region is narrowed successively by tracing hierarchical fuzzy clusters of shots. Additionally, the color correlogram of a video retrieved by querying shot images is shown to be superior to that retrieved according to a histogram.