Bao Tianxiao’s （包天笑 1876-1973） two Chinese translations, Tales of Mr. Absurdity （「法螺先生譚」）（1905） and Continued Tales of Mr. Absurdity （「法螺先生續譚」）（1905）, inspired Xu Nianci （徐念慈 1875-1908） to write the first work of modern science fiction in China, New Tales of Mr. Absurdity （『新法螺先生譚』）（1905）. Until now, it has not been clear how exactly the original German tall tales about a baron named Münchhausen found their way into Iwaya Sazanami’s （巌谷小波 1870-1933） two-volume translated works in the series Fairy Tales around the World （『世界お伽噺』）（1899-1908）, and what happened when these Japanese renditions became the source texts for Bao’s translations. Through literature review, close reading, and textual analysis, the present paper clarifies that relay process, exploring how the Japanese and Chinese translators manipulated the text and changed the genre based on their own agenda and particular historical context.
While more than a quarter of a century has passed since the end of the Cold War, globally, wars
and conflicts are unending. Translation and interpreting play a crucial role in international conflict and peace processes. This study focuses on the new phenomenon and practice of translation and interpreting observed in the Bosnian conflict and its peace processes, and explores the challenges and roles of translation and interpreting from the perspective of the languages and boundaries of modern post-Cold War nations. The study reveals how the ethnic conflict constructed language boundaries causing the necessity of translation and interpreting between nations who previously spoke the same language. The study demonstrates that it is vital to reconsider the premise of the boundaries of language, and translation and interpreting should focus on the commonness, rather than the differences, between languages in the interest of multicultural coexistence in a globalized world.
This research focused on “repairing troubled utterances” which is one of spontaneous remarks of interpreters, analyzed through conversation analysis method. As a result of the analysis, when a remark was made that was not a required answer, it was revealed that the interpreter did not translate what the original speaker said, and the interpreter him/herself started repairing remarks instead of having the original speaker start the repair. There are two factors of repair performed by an interpreter:（1）it is due to a problem of translation and（2）misperception of the speaker. In either case, interpreters think that the interpreter has the authority to restore. This is because interpreters are participating in conversation as a person with a common ground base. It is clear that restorative acts by interpreters are oriented towards what the listener can understand, and this analysis’s results can serve as a clue to elucidate interpreter intervention.
This article explores how a translator, Morita Shiken（1861–1897）, wrote Japanese in the middle Meiji era（1868–1912）. It focuses on an analysis of Morita’s handwritten manuscript translation of a text titled The Steam House（Daihankai）, comparing it with a printed version published in 1889. In the Meiji era, or the time of modernization, many intellectuals argued about ways of writing Japanese because the Japanese people did not have a singular, concrete system of writing then. This means that translators in the era, including Morita, had several choices for their target texts（translated texts）in Japanese. Among the various aspects of a system for Japanese writing, this study focuses on a method of punctuation and the choice between Chinese characters and kana（a Japanese system of syllabic writing）. The analysis of Morita’s handwritten manuscript suggests that the translation process involved selecting particular ways of writing from among several options.
The current study aims to investigate differences in the reading process between students who translated an English text for an examination and those who translated it for communication. For this purpose, 77 Japanese high school students were divided into two groups and asked to translate the text for each purpose and then to take a written recall test in Japanese. Although the paragraphs translated elicited more recalled information than the other paragraphs, the result of the recall test showed no significant differences between the two groups. In addition, those who translated for examination purposes received higher scores, especially when they needed to pay attention to the surface structure of the passage, while those who translated for communication had a better recall of some sections unique to English texts in terms of stylistics. This study supports an eclectic method of two versions of translation activities that depend on the learning purposes.
There is a common misunderstanding in the translation market that simultaneous interpretation is more difficult than consecutive interpretation, thus the former one is superior to the latter. The majority of existing research concentrates on English-oriented interpretation with single material. Chinese-Japanese language pairs have been rarely studied. Against this backdrop, this thesis aims to compare the completeness rates between Japanese-Chinese simultaneous interpreting and consecutive interpreting of professional interpreters by analyzing three separate case studies. The three cases presented in this thesis are extracted from public speeches in the website of the Japan National Press Club, and fall into three categories in terms of the feature of original speech, speech pace, and information density. Nine professional interpreters are divided into CS and SC group, and interpret different parts of the speeches consecutively or simultaneously. Comparisons are made between the same interpreter with different but same-level materials, and different interpreters with the same material.
The “Won-Done Song” in A Dream of Red Mansions and “Notes on the ‘Won-Done Song’” both provide a unique perspective to the understanding of this classic fiction. While three scholars have already made their research on Ito Sohei’s translation of the “Won-Done Song” in Japanese, each with quite different evaluations, the topic is still worthy of further exploration. This thesis aims to examine the plausibility of Ito’s rendering of “won” and “done” into “には ” and “とは ”, and the possible reasons behind this specific translation strategy. Ito’s refusal of the more prevalent method of “kundoku”（reading by literal translation）, together with his strategy of domestication by adopting the form of traditional Japanese ballads, are by no means unconsidered mechanical translation. In all, the retaining of literal meanings of the Chinese characters “hao” and “liao” has undoubtedly better conveyed their original referential meanings.
This paper describes corpus-based analyses of missing translations in simultaneous interpretations. We used English-to-Japanese interpretation data in the simultaneous interpretation database of Nagoya University for the analyses. The English lectures contained 46,568 content words, and 33.1% of them were missing in the translation. We analyzed the relations between omissions and the factors that influence them, i.e., the speech rate of the source language, delay of interpretation, part-of-speech, and depth in the syntactic structure of the source language. The analyses revealed that the proportion of missing translations is high when the speech rate is high, and the delay of interpretation is large, i.e., adverbs were missing in the translations in a high proportion; the words at deeper positions in the syntactic structure were more likely to be missed.
By employing corpus-based analyses of English-Japanese simultaneous interpretation, we discuss the influence translations have on the working memory load of simultaneous interpreters. To conduct a quantitative analysis with a large corpus, we used the Simultaneous Interpretation Database of Nagoya University. We analyzed a total of 88 sets of simultaneous interpretations of 22 different lectures in English given by 17 interpreters. When the load on the working memory of simultaneous interpreters is increased, the speech time increases, the translation rate decreases, but the average speech rate does not exhibit a relevant change.