In order to determine the factors that relate to anoikis of the human oral squamous cell carcinoma (hOSCC) cells, we tried to search the proteins using the HSC-3 cell with metastaticity and the HSC-2 cells without metastaticity. The HSC cells were cultured in a dish coated with poly-HEMA to prevent cell adhesion, and then the degree of cell death was examined. The ratio of cell death for HSC-2 cells was significantly higher than that for HSC-3 cells, and the result of TUNEL staining showed that the cell death was apoptosis. The level of anoikis in HSC-2 cells was notably higher than that in HSC-3 cells. The expression level of TrkB, caveolin-1, and galectin-3 genes that are known as factors related to anoikis was investigated by RT-PCR. There was no significant difference in the gene expression between HSC-2 and HSC-3 cells. Galectin-1 was found by the proteome analysis and the protein was expressed more strongly in the HSC-3 cells as compared with the HSC-2 cells. A similar result was obtained in the amount of the mRNA expression. The anoikis of HSC-3 cells was caused strongly by the addition of lactose that inhibits the binding of galectin-1 to the cell membrane. When recombinant-galectin-1 was added to the medium, the level of anoikis in HSC-2 cells was decreased significantly. From these results, it was suggested that galectin-1 is the factor that suppresses anoikis in hOSCC cells.
The frog glossopharyngeal nerve responds transiently to relatively high concentrations of Na-salts after rinsing the tongue with 1mM NaCl. In the present study, the properties of the phasic responses of the frog glossopharyngeal nerve to Na-salts were investigated. Cross-adaptation experiments between NaCl and LiCl indicate that NaCl and LiCl were very similar to each other. This is in agreement with the fact that LiCl also gives rise to a good salty in humans. The order of effectiveness of Na-salts was NaCl≒Na acetate (NaAc)>Na gluconate (NaGlu). We found that gluconate^- weakly inhibited the phasic response to Na^+. The modulation by gluconate^-was specific to the phasic response to Na^+, because NaAc and NaGlu have a similar effect on phasic responses to quinine-HCl. Amiloride, an epithelial sodium channel broker, did not affect phasic responses to NaCl at 1.5 min after application of amiloride to the tongue, suggesting that amiloride-sensitive Na^+ channels in the apical membrane are not involved in phasic reponses to Na-salts in the frog glossopharyngeal nerve. Unitary impulses from single sensory units were recorded using the suction electrode method (Kitada, 1978). The latency between onset of stimulation and appearance of the first impulses elicited by 100mM NaCl was average 100 msec. Since the time required for antidromic conduction from the impulse initiation site to the recording site was very short, about 2.4 msec (Sato et al., 1987), it was suggested that the latency obtained here was close to the time between the arrival of the chemical stimulus to the apical membrane and the first impulse in taste fibers. The long latency of impulses in responses to NaCl suggests that cation-channels in the apical membrane are not involved in NaCl taste reception responsible for the phasic response.
The diagnosis of jaw bones using X-ray computed tomography (CT) is important to determine placement of dental implants. A Clinico-statistical study were made on 490 cases which applied preoperative dental mutiplannar reconstructing CT (dental MPR) imaging for dental implant treatment in Iwate Medical University Hospital, during a five-year period from 2002 to 2006. The following results were obtained: 1) The 490 cases consisted of 179 males and 311 females. They ranged in age from 16 to 80 years, the average age was 53.6 years old. 2) The largest number of cases were in their 50's and, in most generations, there were more female cases than male. 3) similar cases have been increasing every year. 4) Most patients were referred from other clinics to our hospital. 5) Of the cases that underwent CT scanning more were mandible than maxilla. 6) Implantation prearranged region revealed a predominance of mandible in anterior teeth, and maxilla in molar teeth. 7) The cases that were using diagnostic surgical stents increased in the first three years, but were constant afterwards.