Halls in the traditional dwellings in northern China are generally closed, whereas those in the south are open. However, in the dwellings in Zhejiang and Jiangsu, many closed halls have partition doors that separate the indoor space from the yard. Focusing on the relationship between the hall and the yard, this study investigated the space of halls in Jiangnan (southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang) and its surrounding areas. A total of 89 cases in and 175 cases around Jiangnan were analyzed. Results indicated that the halls in the Jiangnan area are mostly closed, whereas those in the middle and south of Zhejiang, southeastern Anhui, eastern Jiangxi, and northern Fujian are mainly open. The closed halls in Jiangnan are relatively more special compared with those in its adjacent areas. Aside from the climate of hot-summers and cold-winters, the regional culture of preferring the quality of material life to orthodox etiquette is an important factor in the distinction. A closed hall provides comfort and privacy, thereby reducing the inner openness of the dwelling. These halls also lead to the emergence of assistant alleys in large dwellings.
Paifang, a form of ancient Chinese vernacular architecture integrated with engraving and calligraphy, serves both as monuments and landmarks, features a variety of social functions and expresses rich cultural connotations, and is thus hailed as historical records made of stone. As the stone paifang in Jinxi are numerous and well-preserved, this paper, based on fieldwork, takes eight typical examples of paifang built in the Ming Dynasty as its subjects of study and conducts an analysis on them from the perspectives of geographical and historical distribution as well as classification, and then based on this assesses the cultural heritage value of paifang from three aspects, namely, historical value, artistic value and scientific value. The findings are as follows: First, the building forms of paifang enjoy suitability and versatility for their functions. Second, the function types of paifang reflect the ideology and values of the feudal ruling class. And last, paifang displays the epochal character of architectural and artistic features and the social and economic backgrounds of that era.
The Municipal Abattoir was constructed in the former Shanghai International Settlement in 1933, which was recognized as the largest and most modern one in the Far East, and is now accorded ′Shanghai Outstanding Modern Architecture′. Its architectural space, originated from a unique design and construction process, is as complicated as a huge integrated machine. In order to understand the early influence of English colonial architecture design on settlements in China, this paper investigates a series of problems associated with the abattoir, such as the design process, construction techniques, material quality control etc. by studying many original documents. The abattoir represents the international level of Shanghai modern industrial buildings at that time. After being abandoned for a long period, the abattoir was renovated in 2008 and soon drew plenty of attention both here and abroad. A successful renovation effectively establishes a new contact between people and a site. This paper further explores the methods for reconstructing a creative platform from an industrial heritage.
3D scandata have become increasingly popular for the preparation of survey drawings in wooden architectural heritage. The objective of this study was to identify the pros and cons and characteristics of 3D scandata. Along with survey record sheets and photographs, 3D scandata are raw survey data that are produced directly on-site. These raw survey data are then further processed in an office in order to be used as survey drawings. Among those three items, 3D scandata most notably convey the overall shape, location, and dimension of the heritage, while also providing accurate measurements allowing for more accurate survey drawings. However, 3D scandata are somewhat limited in that they do not provide certain information such as colors, materials, and coupling schemes. 3D scandata are obtained in the field, but are usually processed and screened in an office. Some of the 3D scandata are selected to make survey drawings. Therefore, they can serve as useful complements to other types of raw survey data. Furthermore, 3D scandata are beneficial to the tracing of changes in structures, and can also be used for maintenance management and the development of BIMs. In essence, surveyors are required to perform 3D scanning, as 3D scandata can enhance the accuracy of survey drawings and are utilizable in other valuable ways.
This paper looks at the experiential aspects of the traditional Korean houses known as hanoks. It does so through an examination of the recently rising popularity of the gudeul heating system for use in hanoks. Very recently, remodeled hanoks have become very attractive in the context of the highly uniform housing market of South Korea. Yet hanoks continue to present many inconveniences such as preparing firewood for the gudeul. While some have evaded this problem by modernizing their heating system, others stick to the traditional heating system, arguing that modern heating systems are untrue to the essence of the vernacular house. This study examines the source of the popularity of this traditional heating system despite the inconveniences associated with it. By employing ethnographic as well as archival methods, this study concludes that the popularity of vernacular heating systems comes from their effects on the senses, both tactile and olfactory, rather than satisfying a merely functional need of providing warmth.
Research of Manchurian ancient architecture was initiated by the Japanese people during Japan′s colonial expansion prior to World War II, particularly architectural historian Murata Jiro. His long-term and systemic organization of the historical origins of Manchurian ancient architecture enabled us to understand the unique appearance of Manchurian buildings. Murata′s efforts also contributed to the first edition of ″Manchuria Architectural History.″ In 1924, Murata worked as a teacher in the South Manchuria Industrial Technical School in Dalian, and his ancient architecture surveys would become the most significant achievements of his life. In 1928, Murata first issued the ″Summary of Manchuria Architectural History″ to outline the appearance of ancient architecture. Manchuria Architecture, published in 1935, was the first ever completed Manchurian architectural history compilation. Moreover, in 1931, based on his Manchurian study, Murata published the ″Historical Discourses in the East Asian Architectural Systems,″ which transcends academic conventions to construct an innovative ″cultural geography conception of architectural history.″ Because of the dearth of research related to Murata Jiro that has been conducted at present, the authors analyzed the data provided in the Journal of Manchuria Architectural Association to investigate how Murata implemented his studies during the Manchurian period and evaluated their results.
This study aims to clarify the design method exemplified in a prototype by Le Corbusier, analyzing the second realization of the ″Museum of Unlimited Growth″ in Tokyo, Japan (1955–1959). According to the analysis of Le Corbusier Plans, Carnets (Sketchbooks), and documents of Le Corbusier′s correspondence, the author categorizes the process of the spatial transformation of the prototype in four parts. A finding from this analysis is Le Corbusier′s fundamental interest in natural light over spatial extension based on the pyramidal top light system in the grand hall, which features the ″photographic wall″ in the center of the museum. In conclusion, this paper points out that the museum in Tokyo reflects the origins of the museum prototype; it is the place for synthesis of the arts illuminated by natural light.
This study seeks to identify a conceptual model of place attachment to a home environment, including the relationship between attachment and housing satisfaction. The measuring tools for place attachment to the home environment and housing satisfaction were obtained from preliminary studies. Between October and November of 2011, a questionnaire survey was conducted with students at ′C′ University living independently from their family, with 301 useable responses collected. According to the confirmatory factor analysis results, the five sub-dimensional concepts of affective bonding, place identity, place dependence, rootedness, and home meaning were verified as valid to measure place attachment to the home environment. Place attachment to the home environment was also found to be related to housing satisfaction with an explanatory power of .62, with correlations between place attachment to the home environment and housing satisfaction.
Sales price closely correlates with the market price of neighboring apartment-housing units, which reflects the real transaction price. In addition, sales price is dependent on goods including the apartment′s location, environment, traffic, residential conditions and housing characteristics. Studies on the sales price of apartment housing units mostly estimate the price in regard to the market price, the cost to build the apartments or a combination of both. Currently, there are studies in progress analyzing the factors that impact the sales price and the importance of purchase decision factors of consumers. However, the purchase decision factors of consumers and their importance are always changing. Thus, a sales price decision model that can account for the dynamic nature of purchase decision factors and market price is needed. In this regard, the purpose of this paper is to develop a feasible sales price decision model of apartment housing units considering market price and buying power. This model can be used as a decision-making tool in the initial phases of a project to help contractors′ achieve a reasonable sales price and improve their successes with apartment housing projects.
It is necessary to analyze the processes and principles of how building images are formed in an objective way. In this respect, this study intends to find out where people gaze when looking at a building, especially a residential building. This study has aimed to see where people have the most visual attention when glancing at a detached house by using eye movement tracking devices. One method employed in this study was to divide the observed area into two categories, an opening area and a fixed area, in order to find out the different visual interests people have in these two different areas. A second method was to divide the window into a reflected window and a regular window so as to find out how people′s visual attention differs depending on the characteristics of windows. Finally, an experiment was carried out to test the different points of view relating to visual attention between two groups with different levels of knowledge in architecture. The final results are as follows. Firstly, when people see a house, their attention usually goes to opening areas such as windows or doors. The doors and windows are openings that open and close, and they attract a high degree of attention. Secondly, the reflecting window has a larger visual attention than the plain window. Finally, there was no significant difference in visual attention between the two groups.
The network and the bar chart scheduling method have been widely used so far without distinguishing non-repetitive and repetitive construction projects. However, these scheduling methods have limitations when it comes to establishing effective process plans for construction projects in which construction crews with different levels of productivity carry out repetitive activities by shifting their locations in serial order. Thus, in construction projects with many repetitive processes, the linear scheduling method (LSM) would be more appropriate for establishing effective process plans because it visually expresses the crew productivity for each activity in a unit space. In the case of LSM, however, since the relationship between activities is not clear and its establishment also has limitations, the optimization on LSM in terms of the construction cost or time is a very limited and subjective matter, even for scheduling experts. Therefore, the objective of this research is to develop a process model based on Brute-Force Algorithm for optimizing linear process plans, in consideration of the correlation between the construction cost and time, by utilizing the three types of buffers. These buffers are developed to establish the relations between activities both quantitatively and logically by considering the characteristics of LSM.
This study investigates certain correlations of the impacts of the individual level, urban character, and urban form on individuals′ selection of cars as a means of transportation. It applies the 5Ds (density, diversity, design, destination accessibility, distance to transit), major elements of urban character and form which are believed to decrease the frequency of choosing to use a car. This expanded concept is widely understood to comprise means to promote walking while reducing automobile use. According to urban form theories, the compact city concept is deemed to reduce both vehicle travel and transport energy consumption. The study applies a hierarchical generalized liner model (HGLM), a statistical technique that simultaneously analyzes individual- and urban-level characteristics. The analysis results show that control at the individual level is required in order to properly analyze effective urban character and urban form elements; this enables a reduction in the choice of using a car. The 5Ds demonstrate a significant relation to decreasing the frequency of deciding to use a car. In contrast to existing research, this study drew more elaborate results by introducing a new research method for the more effective examination of individual- and urban-level characteristics.
This paper proposes a placement model for closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras to effectively monitor criminal activity on pedestrian streets in student safety zones in South Korea. Although pedestrian streets around schools are potential crime sites, the legal management of and supervisory responsibility for these areas are ill-defined. The increasing demand for public supervision in student safety zones requires the effective control of high-cost CCTV systems. The rational choice perspective and routine activity approach can be used to explain attackers′ preferences for criminal activities and the accompanying situational characteristics. Surveillance conditions differ depending on the pedestrian flow and immediate environment. The spatial properties derived from the pedestrian street network affect pedestrian flow. In addition, visibility of the physical environment affects natural surveillance and mechanical surveillance. Quantitative research is presented on the needs for surveillance considering these properties, and a placement model for public CCTV cameras is proposed that uses a genetic algorithm. Following an analysis of surveillance conditions, the model provides information describing the placement and mechanical operation of surveillance cameras. CCTV cameras are routinely installed in student safety zones; the proposed model should contribute to the effective planning and installation of these cameras.
Design, technology, and management are three key elements that contribute to the success of any building project and are usually dynamic because of variations in players of any particular project. According to previous research, the quantity of tasks or information within the interfaces among players affects the project′s probability of success or failure. The task or information diversion and adjustment are sources of such a dynamic phenomenon. Conventional project management and construction design focus on critical path, targets, or cost efficiencies, but these methods do not adequately identify the interface complexity among players because no visualized model is used to demonstrate the dynamic behavior of tasks performed by various players. This study aims to identify the dispersion of design, technology, and management tasks among players using the Task Structure Matrix (TSM) model, and visualize the correlation between task dynamics and project outcomes. A building envelope project, which is the most complex area of a building project, was utilized to demonstrate this model, and this shows that the rearrangement of external dependencies effectively reduces the quantity of interface tasks, leading to project success. The findings also demonstrate the TSM model as an effective observation tool for this purpose.
Current literature on vandalism recognises three main reasons for the increase in vandalism in certain housing areas: the design of the housing environment, social characteristics of the residents, and system of management. The physical design features such as the extent of available public spaces and the height of multi-storey blocks of flats are considered to be important. Some studies point to other factors related to the perceptions invoked by the design of public spaces in housing areas, in particular the perceptions of visibility through dwelling windows, the accessibility by the residents, and property ownership. However, there is a lack of research on the effect of perception factors on vandalism. This study attempts to overcome this deficiency in data regarding the problem of vandalism in U.A.E. cities. The study results showed that there is a relationship between vandalism and perception factors invoked by the design of public spaces in housing areas. The perception of visibility appeared to exert a robust effect on vandalism and the perception of accessibility was found to strengthen the effect of the perception of visibility. The study provides some insight into the possible effect of the perception of property ownership and density of youngsters on vandalism.
The purpose of this study was to identify U.S. Boomers′ lifestyles and their future housing preferences, and to examine the relationship between the lifestyles and future housing preferences. A total of 403 usable data were collected through an online survey using a self-administrated questionnaire. Factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to analyze the data. Four Boomers′ lifestyles (the Beautiful Home, the Economical, the Engaged, and the Family Centric) and four housing preferences for later life (the Supportive Housing, the Apartment Rental, the City Townhouse, and the Country House) were identified and the significant relationships between lifestyles and housing preferences were found. The results of this study provide a better understanding of U.S. Boomers′ future housing preferences for their later life according to their lifestyles. This study has several implications for housing development, management and marketing.
Due to rapid socio-demographic changes in Korean society, the number of single or 2-resident households i.e. small households, are increasing at a faster rate than expected. This research aimed to achieve a clear understanding of the residential needs of small households, which are distinctively different from those of regular households created by blood relations. A survey was carried out to identify the general residential needs of small households, and their communal amenity needs. It was found that small households had clearly different residential needs compared to regular households; the needs were generally uniform among regular households, while small households showed significant differences according to socio-demographics, residential conditions, lifestyle and continuation period of households. Given this, small households were categorized into four subgroups and characterized by type, according to the specific residential needs and communal amenity needs of each subgroup. As a result, this research was able to empirically embrace previous researches, which were sporadically carried out on some subgroups of small households, and to formulate residential conditions that the residents of small households want, based on the understanding of their residential needs rather than simple socio-demographic characteristics.
This research integrated the needs to the regional environments, residents, and tourists to discuss the attractive factors of regional characteristics of the public and private realm. Using Tunghai Art Street as an example, the criteria for regional activation were proposed to shape the tourist attraction with cultural and art characteristics. The preliminary investigation recorded the art installations in Art Street′s pedestrian-only space and Corbusier Square, and observed the tourist behavior and activities in the space. Then, interviews were conducted with the community administrators and tourists, in order to learn their opinions and determine key indicative factors. A questionnaire survey was conducted on the tourists. Meanwhile, the Kano Model, IPA, and ANOVA were employed to discover and analyze the main attractive elements of Art Street. As indicated by research results, the positive comments of interview respondents center on the unique and charming characteristics of stores and the aesthetic and artistic atmosphere of streets, while the negative impressions mostly concerned transportation issues, such as insufficient parking spaces, obstacles on the sidewalks, and difficulty for pedestrians to walk on the sidewalks. Based on the results, this study offered suggestions for improving local activities, public facilities, street landscapes and stores.
Diversification in project delivery methods (PDM) over the last two decades has significantly changed the roles of architects, engineers, and contractors in the construction industry. Under the emerging alternative PDMs, the common requirements for architects include ′planning capability′, ′integrated understanding of design and construction′, and ′IT skills′ in addition to traditional architects′ qualifications. In order to meet these requirements, a novel approach to educating future architects was attempted at Myongji University as a capstone project for the 5-year architecture program. This studio was entitled CM & BIM studio focusing on three objectives in design studios; planning, life-cycle integration, and building information modeling (BIM). This paper proposes a curriculum for the CM & BIM studio with detailed teaching objectives and student deliverables. Educational requirements in the age of new architecture were identified first. The CM & BIM studio in 2012 as a case study was introduced in order to validate the adaptability of proposed curriculum. Comments from professors and architects verified and encouraged the promising educational results intended in this paper. Finally, findings and lessons learned are also briefly discussed.
To retrofit historic wooden buildings to improve their seismic and wind resistance, the precise structural assessment to such loads is essential. However, little research has been done in Korea on the ambient vibration test (AVT) of historic wooden buildings for the collection of dynamic characteristics and the corresponding structural assessment. The reason for this is that, for wooden buildings, unlike reinforced concrete (RC) and steel buildings, a systematic in situ AVT method has not been established. In this paper, an in situ AVT method is presented for historic wooden buildings based on the assumption that rigid diaphragm action plays a role in the structural responses of wooden buildings. This assumption is reasonable when the roof and rafters restrain the rotation of columns, as do slabs in RC and steel buildings. The proposed method was employed in an evaluation of the dynamic characteristics of a small traditional wooden building to assess its applicability. The method was also applied to in situ AVT of eight historic wooden buildings that are designated as national treasures in Korea.
Presently, apartment structure plans tend to depart from the standard pattern based on owners′ requests and frame structures are becoming popular instead of wall-type structures and typical structure systems. Moreover, traditional concepts concerning effective land use in addition to importance of view lead to building high-rise buildings with heights of more than 100 m. According to UBC97, the seismic design of such buildings is gaining more attention, specifically, calculations of exact period are very important for equivalent static analysis. The purpose of this study was to consider the safety factors for the natural period of wall-type and high-rise apartments by comparing the natural period obtained by ambient vibration tests and period simplified formulae recommended by UBC97. Target structures followed by a building′s height, structural system and plan type were selected. The reinforced concrete structure apartment′s natural periods were measured using the ambient vibration method. An approximately 30% error between the eigenvalue analysis and test data obtained by the ambient vibration method has been reported.
In this paper, the full rehabilitation process of a damaged passively controlled building is reported. A hybrid retrofit plan that uses tin-rubber bearings to replace the damaged oil dampers is proposed and tested within the size requirement and cost budget. Structural Identification and nonlinear dynamic analyses have been conducted to verify the effectiveness of the hybrid retrofit plan. After the rehabilitation was completed, the retrofitted building with tin-rubber isolators is proved by a recent earthquake to have a better seismic performance than the original building with oil dampers. Finally, the performance of the damping system will be discussed in this paper based on the performance-based design concepts. The performance level of the energy dissipation devices should be set accordingly based on the building performance level for the seismic rehabilitation design. The safety issues of the structural frame and retrofit procedure after the failure or degradation of the damping devices should be investigated in the future.
The responses of liquefiable soils around pile group foundations of tall buildings to earthquakes were measured using acceleration arrays in shaking table tests. System identification techniques were used to analyze the measured accelerations and pore pressures and to calculate the shear stress and shear strain in the soil inside and outside the pile group of a 12-story building as well as the soil shear moduli and damping. The analysis shows that the calculated soil stiffness is similar to the stiffness determined using laboratory tests and that the soil damping is higher. It also shows that pore pressure buildup reduces the shear wave velocity and the soil stiffness.
This paper investigates the indoor light environment, lighting energy consumption and total energy including annual HVAC system in temperate and temperate monsoon climate zones. In certain areas, annual temperature variation is very extreme therefore a high thermal insulating performance for glazing systems is required to minimize the effects of outdoor temperature changes on the indoor temperature. To obtain a variable solar heat gain coefficient value for annual energy performance, single and double skin façade systems were examined for this study and 18 cases considering blind type, ventilation and installing places were set to compare the effectiveness of each. Lighting energy consumption was also investigated using dimming control, high efficient lamp, and blind control throughout an entire year. With the calculation results from the target building as a baseline, we performed the calculation 992 times with a combination of energy saving measures, and total primary energy of lighting and HVAC ranging from 282kWh/m2 year to 372kWh/m2 year.
The objective of this paper is to clarify the spatial design strategies used to control the microclimate of a Chinese vernacular house in summer by comparing the building with modern Chinese rural houses and presenting ideas for contemporary architectural design practice. For this goal the spatial configuration, the spatial boundary conditions, the vegetation in the space and the human activity in the space were analyzed for the vernacular house and for modern rural houses. Also, field measurements were conducted to evaluate the summer thermal environment in the vernacular and a modern house. The results show that the vernacular house has a diverse spatial design and a better building microclimate, making it easier to obtain thermal comfort than the modern houses. Therefore, spatial design strategies of Chinese vernacular houses are still of great value to modern house design, especially when the free-running thermal comfort theory is applied.
This study was performed to evaluate the thermal performance of a Folding Shading Device (FSD), focusing on analyzing the effects of cooling load reduction through computer simulation for the system when it is installed on the south facing wall of a building. The results demonstrate that the use of the FSD allows simultaneous consideration of the altitude and azimuth of the sun, while the projected length of the shade can also be adjusted. A mathematical model for the calculation of the shaded area provided by the FSD by considering the size of the fittings was therefore suggested. In addition, the performance evaluation revealed that the installation of existing types of horizontal, vertical, and lattice shading devices installed for the cooling period in a building would lead to the reduction ratios of solar radiation of 17.45-46.98%, 4.70-14.77%, and 26.17-75.17%, respectively. However, the FSD showed the greatest reduction ratio of 22.15-61.74%. In addition, the reduction ratios of cooling loads for the existing horizontal, vertical, and grating shading devices were 6.72-17.23%, 1.68-5.46%, and 10.08-26.89%, respectively, while the FSD achieved the greatest reduction ratio of 8.40-21.85%. Therefore, if the FSD suggested in this study is applied to a building, it can be expected to achieve reductions of the cooling load, thus contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
This study aims to evaluate the field performance and the efficiency of ventilation systems in school buildings. Three classrooms installed with ventilation systems in a high school in Seoul were selected as a test bed for this study. The ventilation systems consisted of two types of multi air-conditioning ventilation system and a window type air-conditioning ventilation system. The ventilation performance was measured by the blower door and tracer gas methods as follows: (1) Evaluation of air tightness and air infiltration in the classrooms; (2) Indoor ventilation performance based on the operating condition of ventilation systems; (3) Ventilation performance based on the operating conditions of ventilation systems and air-conditioners; and (4) Local ventilation efficiency and performance based on the operating status of the ventilation systems and air-conditioners. As a result, the ventilation efficiency was measured at 34.8%-97.8% for the duct type of ventilation and 82.6% for the window type ventilation. In this study, classroom characteristics such as high air infiltration low air tightness lowered the ventilation effectiveness. The ventilation efficiency varied based on the location of air inlet and outlet ducts and the existence of furniture. However, local ventilation efficiency was not significantly affected according to the results of this study. The results showed that a ventilation rate of 1000 cubic meters per hour (CMH) or more would be required to maintain 1000 ppm of CO2 concentrations as per IAQ criteria for Korean classrooms.
The purpose of this experimental study was to improve the performance of bathroom exhaust systems. In this study, the performance of fans used in bathrooms was measured by a field test and laboratory test. Because there are no specific codes for bathroom ventilation in Korea, different construction companies implement their own regulations when installing fans in the bathrooms of multi-unit buildings. To determine if their exhaust performance meets the 8 ACH standard, field measurements were conducted and the construction methods and design methods were proposed to improve their exhaust performance. In addition, to provide the standard method for installing fans, laboratory tests were conducted to offer a design standard of the fan′s components.
Rural housing is a small eco-system consisting of ecological structures, ecological behavior and ecological concepts, which interact with one another and coexist in a symbiotic manner. Based on ecological unity, this paper carries out research on how to transform the rural housing system from its primitive ecology into a sustainable modern ecology, applying the ecological coupling design concept to guide the building of rural housing. The study emphasizes taking advantage of farmers′ behavior and consciousness to improve the ecological environment of rural housing, and then extends this further to realize livable residences that embody low consumption.