Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering
Online ISSN : 1347-2852
Print ISSN : 1346-7581
Volume 2 , Issue 2
Showing 1-21 articles out of 21 articles from the selected issue
  • Wen-Pei Sung, Kuen-Suan Chen, Wernshyuan Song, Yu-Yin Tsai
    2003 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages b1-b6
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 21, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Resource and material costs are significant proportion of total construction cost in civil and construction engineering. The purchase of these resources and materials need to coordinate with different suppliers. The selection of suppliers plays an important role in construction process management. This research will focus on delivery and try to define an index of performance of formwork process to evaluate the suppliers. Moreover, the index also provides a convenient and effective way to evaluate various suppliers′ performance of formwork process at the same time. This paper uses Boyle′s rate of tallied tolerance of index of process capability and Taguchi Loss Function as a non-dimensional equation to define an index of performance of formwork process that has the rate of as scheduled delivery as basis. In addition, this paper also refers to Vännman′s method to develop an analysis chart of performance of multi-formwork process to compare the performance of every supplier. When implementing the analysis method developed by this paper into practical examples, it is very convenient and accurate to express the relationship between the index of performance of formwork process and rate of as scheduled delivery.
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  • Yuichi Sato, Katsuhiro Nagatomo, Yoshifumi Nakamura
    2003 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages b7-b14
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 21, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper presents an experimental investigation of bond-strengthening hooks as a new method to increase bond strength along flexural reinforcing bars in reinforced concrete (RC) beams and columns. The RC members, which consist of 1,300 MPa-class spirals as shear reinforcement, often suffer from bond splitting failure. The proposed method attempts to increase confining stiffness around the flexural bars by placing U-shaped hooks and to prevent premature bond splitting failure. Twelve specimens with varied amounts and sizes of the hooks were prepared to verify the strengthening effectiveness under monotonic and cyclic loading conditions. The test result indicated that the hooks increased the bond strength along the flexural bars although the strengthening effectiveness was limited by effective reinforcement ratio pbe. This limit is determined by size of stress-transmitting zones of concrete around anchors of the hooks. Anchors of the hooks are recommended to be longer than twelve times the hook diameter and inserted deeper than a quarter of the member depth (D/4). Proposed design equations provided modest estimates of the shear strengths.
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  • Tomoko Uno, Shuichi Hokoi, Ekasiwi Sri Nastiti
    2003 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages b15-b21
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 21, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper reports the results of the survey in Indonesia on the consciousness of the residents towards the use of air conditioner.
    The questionnaire survey and measurements of the thermal environment were carried out. The higher the resident′s income is, the more the percentage of the residents who feel the air conditioner is necessary. Once they start to use air conditioners, they will not quit using. When the air conditioner is used, the room temperature is from 24 to 30 degrees C, similar to that in Japan. The air conditioner is usually used around 14:00 and during sleeping time. This is similar to Naha′s situation, a subtropical area in Japan. Also, the duration that the air conditioner is used is longer than that in Japan. The energy consumption for cooling is expected to increase in this area.
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  • Xingtian Wang, Weijun Gao, Haifeng Li, Penglin Zhao, Jianxing Ren, Tos ...
    2003 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages b23-b27
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 21, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Yangtze Delta Area is most developed area in China, the center of which is Shanghai, a largest economical city and largest harbor for industry and trade. Besides Shanghai, this area has many cities with a high economical power and highly developed urbanization. The GDP is about 195 billion USD about 20% of the all cities in China. GDP for person is twice than average value of all the cities. The development of economy and living condition in this area will give a significant impact on other cities in China. In this paper, we have an investigation on situation relating with living environment and energy consumption in cities of Yangtze Delta Area by using China statistical data.
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  • Masahiro Sotoma, Hiroshi Miyazaki, Takashi Kyakuno, Masakazu Moriyama
    2003 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages b29-b34
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 21, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study is to make clear the relation between Land Use Zoning Regulations and Green Coverage Ratio in Japanese urbanized city. It is probable that Land Use Zoning Regulations has an influence on Green Coverage Ratio for its restrictions to building form and use. However, this relation is not clear. For creating and protecting green area in urbanized city, it is important to consider the influence brought by land use zones. The study area was selected in Sakai City, Osaka, Japan. Green Coverage Ratios of past 3 terms in the study area were estimated by satellite remote sensing data (LANDSAT5-TM data), and its changes were analyzed statistically using GIS. The results of this study show that there are some tendencies of Estimated Green Coverage Ratio′s change in each land use zones. And this means the possibility to take control of Green Coverage Ratio in urbanized city and give supports to the establishment of the green area-related laws by Land Use Zoning Regulations.
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  • Qingyuan Zhang, Huang Joe, Hongxing Yang, Chengzhi Lou
    2003 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages b35-b41
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 21, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, using two databases of observed weather data for the major cities in China, we developed models with three variables to estimate hourly solar radiation on the horizontal surfaces for these cities. The errors in estimating solar radiation in different locations were discussed. Two methods to estimate monthly solar radiation were developed and compared. Models to estimate yearly solar radiation were also developed using latitude, elevation and average cloud cover.
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  • Kazuhiro Soga, Hiroshi Akasaka
    2003 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages b43-b48
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 21, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this report, we examined influences of solar incident angle on the power generation efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) modules based on a measurement, during winter, at Kagoshima in Japan (31.570°N, 130.545°E). It was indicated that the power generation efficiency of PV modules deteriorates with time depending on the solar incident angle, and that there are cases where the power generation efficiency sharply drops if the incident angle exceeds 60° and the reflectance of cover glass exceeds 0.2. Such drop of power generation efficiency dependent on incident angle clearly appears at clear time when the proportion of direct components of solar radiation increases. Furthermore, it was pointed out that the average value of power generating efficiency during winter including all weather conditions produces differences of 10% or so, depending on the difference of average value during the period of incident angle.
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  • Kunping Lin, Yinping Zhang
    2003 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages b49-b53
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 21, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper illustrates a structure of electric floor heating system with latent heat thermal storage plate. This system can charge heat by using cheap nighttime electricity and discharge the heat stored at daytime. A theoretical model is developed, which can analyze the thermal performance of buildings applying such system in winter. The thermal performance of the heating system and the effects of various factors on it are analyzed by modeling and simulation. For a given room located in different climate regions, the optimal effect of using such system is predicted, which testifies the feasibility of this heating mode in different climate regions.
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  • Rika Funaki, Shin-ichi Tanabe, Hiroshi Tanaka, Takafumi Nakagawa
    2003 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages b55-b59
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 21, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Indoor chemicals are emitted not only from building materials but also from various products such as furniture and electronic appliances, which were brought by occupants. Usually these electronic appliances are made of plastics and synthetic materials. Also adhesive and sorbent were used for them. In this paper, the emission rates of aldehydes and VOCs from electronic appliances including a portable PC, a remote controller of TV, a low frequency current massager, a cellular phone, and a photo journal were measured by using a small chamber. It was found that the emission rate of formaldehyde for the portable PC during turning on was 9μg/unit·h, which was 9 times higher than that of switched off. In the second experiment, a portable PC was exposed under relatively high concentration of ozone. The outlet ozone concentration from the chamber with PC was decreased as low as 50% of the blank chamber.
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  • Ju Yeon Kim, Hyun Soo Lee
    2003 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages b61-b68
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 21, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    One of the main motivations of this research is to develop an adaptable Virtual Reality (VR) model whose color can be changed dynamically according to the identified emotional state of a user. This paper addresses how to capture a specific user′s emotion through the web and use it for modifying VR model mainly for color adaptation. This adaptation process of a VR model consists of three phases: 1) identification of the user′s emotional state projected onto the selected paintings, 2) translation of those captured emotional keywords into a pertinent set of color coordinations, and finally, 3) automated color adaptation process for the given VR model. In this paper, we introduced a method of using well-known paintings and their variations to derive an on-line viewer′s emotional state which can be utilized to find a new color scheme reflecting the identified emotion. This color harmony scheme can provide a useful information for a dynamic color coordination for the objects embedded in the given VR model. The outcome of this study could enable an interactive and dynamic VR model supporting emotion-responsive interior design simulations or the visionary scenario of the architectural environment where interior colors are changed according to the captured mood of the occupant.
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  • Chun-Shui Zhao, Naoji Matsumoto, Ting-Feng Liu, Yi-Qian Yuan, Katsuhir ...
    2003 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages b69-b76
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 21, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the image of landscape of Japanese and Chinese gardens, and to analyze the landscape elements which have an effect in forming those images. Although the landscape of both countries′ gardens share many similarities in many aspects, the image of ″Country-likeness″ is different based on the environment, climate and traditions. In order to explore the unique image characteristics of landscape of garden such as ″Japan-likeness″ and ″China-likeness″, four psychological investigations consisting of three parts were carried out separately on Japanese and Chinese subjects. Through a comparative analysis, we found that there were many obvious distinctions between the Japanese and Chinese subjects regarding the image of Japan-likeness and China-likeness. Furthermore, this study has clarified that some landscape elements have an effect on forming Country-likeness image.
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  • Tomo Inoue, Shuichi Matsumura, Tsuyoshi Seike
    2003 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages b77-b82
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 21, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Japan is currently leading the world in many aspects of facade design and cladding technology development. Many buildings feature the latest technological and environmentally friendly concepts that provide Japanese architects with new possibilities to create impressive and innovative schemes. However, despite such advances and designs, facade engineering in Japan is still problematic. The reasons generally stem from the fact that this field is still evolving, and the function of the facade changes from project to project. In addition, the exact role of the engineer in facade design has yet to be clearly established. In this paper, three models will be presented and discussed: 1) facade engineering managed by general contractors; 2) facade engineering supported by specialized subcontractors; 3) facade engineering through collaboration between architects and engineers. We put Japanese facade engineering into better perspective by analyzing the status of the current field of facade engineering. As this is a developing field, new models must be established. Until that is accomplished, Japanese design and engineering of facades will remain divided and inconsistent. This paper highlights the causes of the problems and hopes of proposing a possible alternative for the future.
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  • Kyu-In Lee
    2003 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages b83-b94
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 21, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The objective of the present study is to assess the environmental sustainability of multi-family estates in Korea, and based on the assessment, to consider the best future direction for the further promotion of environmental sustainability. In this study, 111 representative multi-family housing estates in Korea were selected and assessed for their sustainability, based on sustainability indicators and standards, and the following conclusions were drawn.
    In assessment by sectors, the sustainability of landuse and transportation appeared high, but the sustainability of energy and resource use was assessed to be quite low. Indicators such as sunlight use, heavy water use, construction waste recycling and biotop development showed achievement as low as 10%. Thus, these areas will require further efforts.
    In assessment by estates, the sustainability of landuse appeared high in estates of large-scaled systematic development, but low in those of disordered development or redevelopment. Therefore, the promotion of large-scaled systematic development is recommended. Estates developed under the slogan of environmental-friendliness were found to be superior in both ecological environment and indoor environment, so they should be promoted as well. In addition, estates constructed in the turnkey system attained good marks in several sustainability indicators including energy, which suggests that the turnkey system has advantages.
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  • Mengzhen Han, Junzo Munemoto, Daisuke Matsushita
    2003 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages b95-b102
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 21, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study is to examine and clarify the relation between people′s evaluations on the living conditions and the plan locations of the dwelling units in Multi-Floor Row House Cluster (MFRHC) with the parallel layout. Instead of the on-site survey, four models were used to collect people′s evaluations in the investigation. The evaluation indices included: the Sunlight situations (ES), Views from dwelling units (EV), Privacy (EP), Noise situations (EN), and Comprehensive Evaluation index (CE). The plan locations of the dwelling units were described with four nominal variables indicating the positions in a row house, the relations with the green land, the north-south locations and the east-west locations in MFRHC respectively. The Ordinal Regression models were utilized to make clear the specific relation between the subjective evaluations and the physical variables indicating plan locations. The results were found accordant with the most preferred and the most disliked dwelling units selected by the respondents. The order of the relative contributions of the item indices in CE from high to low is EV, EN, EP and ES.
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  • Jae Wan Park, Jin Won Choi
    2003 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages b103-b109
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 21, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper demonstrates an experience in the development of a design performance evaluation system that can frequently evaluate physical and spatial requirements of apartment unit floor plans within the design process in a real-time manner. The evaluation system, that we call ″ Vitruvius Studio,″ is composed of several modules such as a front-end component-based CAD engine, a knowledge base, and a set of design agents. The notion of the design compiler is quite similar to a compiler for computer programming such as a C compiler. While a computer programmer compiles a set of programming codes to check compiling errors during the implementation of a software system, an architectural designer can ′compile′ his/her intermediate design product to evaluate design errors during the design process. The compilation can be done immediately at any level or any time during the design process in a real-time manner. We expect that this compiling process will dramatically increase design feedbacks, and thus result in a better design product. Further research issues that have been identified at the end of the research include increasing the modeling capability, extending to multi-story building representation, developing various design agents, exploring better ways to request and manage design knowledge, and supporting design collaboration.
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  • Tomohiko Yoshida
    2003 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages b111-b116
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 21, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    City planning in Indonesia is currently facing some difficulties in using land consolidation project (L/C) to develop urban areas. In this study, we analyze the differences of implementation process of L/C projects in the Republic of Indonesia and compare it with Land Readjustment (LR) projects in Japan.
    The L/C project in Indonesia needs to resolve the issue of how to promote non-subsidized projects in districts having high potential for land price increase in such an urbanized area of big city as Jakarta. When promoting it, two factors of implementation should be reconsidered based on analysis in this paper. Firstly, high consent rate of landowners to start projects. Secondly, large area size per district.
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  • Ringer Taruc Manalang, Junzo Munemoto, Tetsu Yoshida, Cristopher Espin ...
    2003 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages b117-b122
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 21, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study is to clarify the validity of the residents′ self-built improvements as predictors of their intention on residential mobility while using the HAYASHI II (Qualification Method) as the method for the analysis. These self-built improvements were classified into three categories and these are; a) kinds of improvements, b) usage of improvements, and c) opinions on future improvements as shown in Figure 1. The data show that residents who installed grille balcony at the rear portion of their dwelling units and used them as kitchen and storage as well as residents who constructed mezzanine floors and used them for bedroom and storage have the intention to stay longer. On the other hand, some of the residents who had already made all the improvements and those who did not make any improvements are more likely to move out. The installation of grille balconies satisfies the residents′ needs for kitchen and storage spaces, while the construction of mezzanine floors satisfies their needs for additional bedroom and storage spaces. These developments enhanced their sense of belonging to their dwelling units. Thus, the kinds of self-built extensions and occupation of spaces-which predicted the residents′ intention to move or to stay-are valuable indicators of the residential mobility.
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  • Mari Tanaka, Yukiyo Kikuchi, Akira Akazawa, Shuji Funo, Masami Kobayas ...
    2003 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages b123-b130
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 21, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study clarifies the transformation of Core Housing units through residents′ extension at Tung Song Hong (TSH) Settlements. It was constructed by the National Housing Authority in late 1970s. The study focuses on three points such as transition of the settlements and residents, use of advantage of Core Housing and spatial characteristics of extended Core Housing. We found that settlements have been developed both physically and socially through residents continuous living. However there was lack of management system by the provider side to support residents′ self-build activities, residents did not understand the detail of devices of Core Housing nor follow the projected extension process. On the other hand, there are similarity among space composition through residents′ step by step extensions, even original core units were varied. We called it as multipurpose living room oriented plan. The multipurpose living room is frequently used for daily life but also very important at the ceremony and indicates residents′ recognition toward the houses in Thailand.
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  • Hideo Izumida
    2003 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages b131-b136
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 21, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper aims at identifying a profile of the British architects who have worked in East and Southeast Asia from 1830 to 1940. They played a vital role in the modern development of Asian architecture. Althoug most of building works have been done by military and civil engineers all the time of the 19th century, a couple of trained architects came to this region to look for the luck as soon as the British possessed new colonies. After Suez Canal opened, professional British architects began to be employed by local or colonial governments and designed marvelous and symbolic buildings probably to show colonial supremacy to the locals. During economic boom starting in 1880s, private architectural firms were also set up by partnarship of civil engineers. Three firms took advantage of this boom and grew up immediately as leading architectural office. After the First World War, the number of British architects gradually decreased supposedly because Japanese and American architects advanced to this region.
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  • Seungkoo Jo, ImJoo Choi
    2003 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages b137-b144
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 21, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Vision is one of the most important means of architectural and urban communications. Many original protagonists of modern architecture had supreme confidence in their deterministic power and vision. They believed that properly designed architectural objects and cities would improve not only the form but also the content of the society. Le Corbusier argues that architecture is the key to everything. Thus Modern architects were convinced that their visions were reality, their ideas truth. Embodying many of the values typical of modernity, Le Corbusier planned not only a physical environment, but also proposed a social utopia. The body, for Le Corbusier, acted as the central referent; its analogy infused biology into the mechanics of the city and building. Based upon the human figure as a system of proportions and harmony, he wants to establish the dualistic arguments for his concept of planning: one is a philosophical argument about geometry, nature, technology; the other is an argument about the social problems resulted from the historical changes and demographical changes in cities. This study is intent on discussing how Le Corbusier used the notion of geometrical order and body, and describing how his principles were recognized and applied to his works.
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  • Jin-Ho Park
    2003 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages b145-b152
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 21, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper is developed based on a document presented at the 5Th Congress and Exhibition of the ISIS-Symmetry, held at the University of New South Wales, Sydney in July 2001. It takes as its point of departure of searching for formal methodologies for the description and construction of architectural designs. Its applications in the analysis and synthesis of housing designs are discussed and new possible housing assemblies in an urban scale are suggested with the same principles. The valuable insight of this study is to suggest symmetry principles as design strategies and compositional methodologies in order to develop new design alternatives for topological diversity in housing designs.
    This paper outlines mathematical concepts of transformations in design and comparatively analyzes F. L. Wright′s Quadruple Building Block and R. M. Schindler′s Schindler Shelters to show how these concepts are strategically employed as thematic elements in the unit design as well as the variations in housing. Skylight designs of both architects are also analyzed to summarize their conscious interests of the concepts. This paper concludes that both architects consciously exploit the principle of symmetry to generate both interior room variations and multiple housing units. The two housing designs represent good examples of our complementary reasoning between precedent and progress: Wright′s design as a precedent, and that of Schindler, a notable progression.
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