The Journal of the Japanese Association for Chest Surgery
Online ISSN : 1881-4158
Print ISSN : 0919-0945
ISSN-L : 0919-0945
Volume 25 , Issue 1
Showing 1-23 articles out of 23 articles from the selected issue
  • Tetsuro Baba, Hidetaka Uramoto, Sohsuke Yamada, Taiji Kuwata, Yoshika ...
    2011 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 002-006
    Published: January 15, 2011
    Released: April 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We retrospectively analyzed 10 cases of pulmonary carcinoid tumor. Among them, 7 cases were diagnosed as having typical carcinoid (TC) and 3 cases were diagnosed with atypical carcinoid (AC) tumors. The mean age was 49.5 years and the patients included 6 males and 4 females. Only four cases were preoperatively diagnosed with a carcinoid; however, four cases were diagnosed with other pathological types of lung cancer. The following resections were performed: 2 pneumonectomies, 1 bilobectomy, 4 lobectomies, 1 segmentectomy, 1 partial resection, and 1 bronchoplasty. All patients with TC survived without recurrence, and, despite the development of recurrence, none of the patients with AC died due to a recurrence of the disease. The five-year survival rate of all carcinoid patients following resection was 62.5%. These data indicate that surgery which preserves the pulmonary function should therefore be considered for TC, and adjuvant therapy for AC should also be considered in order to improve the prognosis.
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  • Kimihisa Shiino, Kazuhiro Sakamoto, Kazuki Yamanaka, Akiko Shoutsu
    2011 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 007-012
    Published: January 15, 2011
    Released: April 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background and Purpose. At many institutes, patients with moderate to severe spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) are treated with continuous chest drainage under hospitalization. However, many of these patients are young, and they often opt for outpatient treatment. We evaluated the effectiveness of and indications for Thoracic Egg® (TE) (Sumitomo Bakelite Company Limited, Tokyo, Japan), a portable thoracic drainage device for SP. Between June 2005 and December 2009, we used TE to shorten the hospitalization period for SP treatment at our hospital. Patients and Methods. We examined 57 patients (44 men and 13 women; age range, 14-75 years; mean age, 29.5 years), 36 of whom had primary and 21 had recurrent pneumothorax. TEs were attached to patients who had moderate to severe SP. Patients with tension pneumothorax, hydropneumothorax, hemopneumothorax, or pulmonary emphysema were excluded. Results. Of the 57 patients, 28 were treated as outpatients with TE only, and 29 underwent surgery for persistent air leakage or recurrent pneumothorax. The total drainage period with TE was 307 days, and the total hospitalization period for the pneumothorax operations was 163 days. No complications occurred in any except one patient who required replacement with a larger bore trocar catheter and needed continuous suction under hospitalization. The total period of outpatient therapy with TE was 128 days, and the total period of outpatient drainage with TE for those who required surgery before admission was 137 days. From these results, we suggest that patients can be followed-up as outpatients, and the hospitalization period can be shortened by 86.3% on performing outpatient therapy with TE instead of chest drainage under hospitalization. Conclusion. For outpatient treatment of SP, TE is effective and can shorten the hospitalization period for appropriately selected patients.
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  • Hiroko Miyaji, Masato Kanzaki, Yusei Miyamoto, Takamasa Onuki
    2011 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 013-020
    Published: January 15, 2011
    Released: April 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Both the effect of chemical pleurodesis and change in visceral pleura on combined use with fibrin glue were examined in rats. Pleurodesis models were prepared using FG plus the addition of OK432, platinum nanocolloid, or polyhydroxyacetic acid polymer in the thoracic cavity. Controlled-release-effect models of FG containing OK432 were prepared. Adhesion between the lung and chest wall was not observed for both fibrin glue plus OK432 or platinum nanocolloid. In the OK432 group, the peak of inflammation under the pleura occurred at one week. However, in the group of FG plus OK432, the peak of inflammation under the pleura occurred at two weeks. OK432 was supplied to the visceral pleura slowly as a result of the FG being absorbed, and stimulated the pleural surface slowly and gently. It was suggested that the pleural adhesion was inhibited. Chemical pleurodesis utilizing FG for intractable pneumothorax can not only thicken the visceral pleura, but also prevent pneumothorax recurrence.
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  • Hidehiko Shimokawa, Takeshi Hanagiri, Mitsuhiro Takenoyama, Sousuke Ya ...
    2011 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 021-024
    Published: January 15, 2011
    Released: April 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We report a case of pulmonary dirofilariasis, which was diagnosed on thoracoscopic resection. A 59-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for the preoperative examination of a pancreatic tumor. A chest computed tomography (CT) scan showed a cavitary mass of 1.5×1.0 cm in the left upper lobe. As the lesion was suspected to be a metastatic lung tumor due to the presence of the pancreatic tumor, partial lung resection was performed employing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Pathological examination revealed pulmonary dirofilariasis with the identification of a worm of Dirofilaria immitis. Cavity formation due to pulmonary dirofilariasis is rare. Because pulmonary dirofilariasis shows a solitary nodule in the periphery of the lung, it is often necessary to differentially diagnose it from a primary or metastatic lung tumor.
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  • Hirotsugu Yanai, Hiroyuki Kaneda, Tomohiro Maniwa, Ken-ichiro Minami, ...
    2011 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 025-030
    Published: January 15, 2011
    Released: April 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A 67-year-old man showed a gradually increasing mass of the anterior chest wall. Chest CT demonstrated an invasive multilocular cystic tumor that was 70 mm in diameter and originated from the 9th rib. Pathological findings on tumor biopsy revealed chondrosarcoma (Grade 1~2). Eighteen days after the incision biopsy, chest CT clearly demonstrated enlargement of the tumor, at 73 mm in diameter. Surgical resection was performed to remove the chondrosarcoma combined with the 8th rib, 9th rib, and part of the diaphragm. Reconstruction of the chest wall was performed using Marlex Mesh. No signs of recurrence were noted as of 12 months after the surgery. We encountered a case of rapidly increasing chondrosarcoma of the rib after biopsy. After incision biopsy, early surgery should be considered for the avoidance of rapid tumor progression. Excision as extensive as possible is considered important.
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  • Yoshimitsu Hirai, Tatsuya Yoshimasu, Shoji Oura, Koma Naito, Yasushi N ...
    2011 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 031-036
    Published: January 15, 2011
    Released: April 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A 34-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of hoarseness and chest pain. A chest radiograph and computed tomography scan revealed a large mass that extended from the mediastinum to the right-sided lung field. Serum alpha-fetoprotein and beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin levels were extremely high. We diagnosed his tumor as a non-seminomatous mediastinal germ cell tumor. Although serum tumor marker levels normalized after chemotherapy, the tumor continued to increase in size. The patient was operated on with en bloc resection of the mediastinal mass. The tumor was pathologically identified as a germ cell tumor with somatic-type malignancy. The prognosis of mediastinal germ cell tumor with somatic-type malignancy is known to be extremely poor, and no effective treatment has been established. When the tumor continues to grow despite the normalization of serum tumor markers, we should consider this type of entity.
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  • Yasushi Ito, Satoshi Ohi, Kozo Matsushita, Tsuyoshi Takahashi, Hiroshi ...
    2011 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 037-042
    Published: January 15, 2011
    Released: April 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A 77-year-old man with an abnormal shadow on a chest radiograph was admitted to our hospital for a more detailed examination in September 2003. After a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma with a suspicion of mediastinal node involvement (cT2aN2M0, stage III A) was made following a chest CT scan and transbronchial biopsy, new faint infiltrates appeared in the left upper lobe on a repeated chest CT scan. Because the tumor narrowed the left upper bronchus and these infiltrates were limited in the upper lobe, we diagnosed the new lesions as obstructive pneumonia caused by the tumor, and an operation was performed. As the entire left upper lobe and left segment 6 were hard like the liver, total pneumonectomy was required. The pathological diagnosis was lung adenocarcinoma and organizing pneumonia (OP). Although he improved and was discharged on the 12th postoperative day, dyspnea appeared with infiltrative shadows in the right lung which resembled the faint infiltrates in the left upper lobe. He was admitted again on the 18th postoperative day. Two pulse therapies of corticosteroid followed by macrolide treatment were given, and he was discharged on the 76th day after the second admission. In cases of lung cancer complicated with infiltrates that appear sub-acutely and are resistant to antibiotics, it is important to consider the possibility of lung cancer complicated by interstitial pneumonia. Careful decisions are necessary in order to treat such cases.
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  • Satona Tanaka, Fengshi Chen, Junko Kusano, Keiji Ohata, Takahisa Matsu ...
    2011 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 043-047
    Published: January 15, 2011
    Released: April 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A 77-year-old man with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus was admitted to our hospital because of dyspnea. Chest CT showed a 5-cm mass in the left lower lobe with an intrabronchial polypoid lesion. Bronchoscopy showed the bronchial polypoid tumor extending to the left main bronchus from the left lower lobe bronchus, but the left upper bronchus remained intact. Bronchoscopy after admission revealed the bronchial tumor growing rapidly and almost obstructing the left upper lobe bronchus. After the strict control of diabetes mellitus, left lower lobectomy was performed one week after admission. The postoperative course was uneventful. The bronchial stump was free from the tumor. Therefore, complete resection was conducted by a left lower lobectomy. The tumor was diagnosed as pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung without lymph node metastasis.
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  • Hidehisa Hoshino, Eitetsu Koh, Yukio Saitoh
    2011 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 048-053
    Published: January 15, 2011
    Released: April 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A 29-year-old man was diagnosed with an adenoid cystic carcinoma arising from the left main bronchus. The lesion extended to the lower part of trachea and the right main bronchus. Left sleeve pneumonectomy was performed through a median sternotomy, taking account of the use of cardiopulmonary bypass and wrapping the anastomosis with omentum on the resection and reconstruction of the long segment of the respiratory tract. Because the tumor invaded the bifurcation of the pulmonary trunk, left pneumonectomy was initially performed. On cardiopulmonary bypass, en-bloc resections of the left branch of the pulmonary trunk, the distal five tracheal rings, and two rings of the proximal right main bronchus including the carina were accomplished, followed by smooth reconstruction. The postoperative course was uneventful, adopting temporary mechanical ventilation after the procedure. Although left sleeve pneumonectomy is still an uncommon and technically extremely demanding operation characterized by a high risk of morbidity and mortality, the present case shows that excellent outcomes can still be achieved with appropriate patient selection, precise techniques, and optimal perioperative planning.
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  • Koichi Fukumoto, Takayuki Fukui, Simon Ito, Shunzo Hatooka, Tetsuya Mi ...
    2011 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 054-057
    Published: January 15, 2011
    Released: April 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A 57-year-old male was diagnosed with bilateral pulmonary metastatic nodules three years after right hepatic resection for hepatocellular carcinoma. One was located at the anterior basal segment (S8) of the right lower lobe, and the other was at the lateral basal segment (S9) of the left lower lobe. Right lower lobectomy was performed three years after hepatic resection, and partial resection of the left lower lobe was carried out four years after hepatic resection. Twelve years after hepatic resection, partial resection of the right upper lobe was performed for solitary pulmonary metastasis. Long-term survival is extremely rare after pulmonary resections for metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma without intrahepatic recurrence or other distant metastases.
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  • Yasunori Nishida, Satoshi Nishi, Kenji Misawa, Osamu Mishima, Morihisa ...
    2011 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 058-063
    Published: January 15, 2011
    Released: April 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Ligation of the thoracic duct is generally used for the treatment of chylothorax. However, in many cases so treated, additional treatments are often needed after surgery because of incomplete healing. We report a case of idiopathic chylothorax involving a 62-year-old woman, who was successfully treated with ligation of thoracic ducts and resection of the cisterna chyli employing a thoracoscopic approach. Preoperative magnetic resonance-thoracic ductography (MRTD) was useful in deciding on the indication of thoracoscopic surgery. We believe that resection of the cisterna chyli can provide a better chance for healing of the chylothorax.
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  • Akihiko Yamashina, Hideki Motoyama, Daisuke Nakajima, Koji Chihara, To ...
    2011 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 064-068
    Published: January 15, 2011
    Released: April 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We report two middle-aged women with thymic hyperplasia mimicking thymoma. A 46-year-old woman presenting with a cough was referred to our division for the diagnosis of a light diffuse interstitial shadow of the lung and a mass in the anterior mediastinum on a CT scan. A thymic specimen obtained by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery showed lymphoid follicles. As we could not rule out a thymoma because she had no autoimune diseases, we performed a thymo-thymectomy through a median sternotomy. The final diagnosis was not thymoma but lymphofollicular thymic hyperplasia. The other patient was a 48-year-old woman who presented with precordial pain. A cystic lesion in the anterior mediastinum was found on chest CT and MRI. True thymic hyperplasia combined with a thymic cyst was diagnosed on thymo-thymectomy through a median sternotomy. Thymic hyperplasia without self-immunologic disorder or true thymic hyperplasia in middle-aged adults is extremely rare. However, this entity should be considered in cases showing an anterior mediastinal mass mimicking thymoma, even in aged patients.
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  • Kimimasa Sakata, Saya Miyahara, Shigeki Sugiyama, Keizou Inagaki, Yosh ...
    2011 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 069-073
    Published: January 15, 2011
    Released: April 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A 64-year-old man was admitted for massive left-sided pleural effusion and atelectasis one year previously. The eosinophilic pleural effusion was drained, and the effused fluid was examined; however, a definite diagnosis coule not be established. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery revealed hemopneumothorax. Pleurodesis was performed for continuous pleural effusion, and the patient recovered. One year later, he was readmitted for high fever and hemoptysis. A chest-abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a cystic lesion in the posterior mediastinum in the body of the pancreas. We drained the serosanguinetic pleural effusion that showed markedly elevated amylase activity of 101,000 IU/L. This effused fluid was examined, and a mediastinal pancreatic pseudocyst was diagnosed. The cyst was surgically removed (Roux-en-Y side-to-side pancreatic cyst-jejunum anastomosis), and the postoperative course of the patient was uneventful without recurrent pancreatitis or pleural effusion. We suggest that mediastinal pancreatic pseudocyst should also be considered in the differential diagnosis of respiratory disease with no abdominal complaints.
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  • Kenji Misawa, Satoshi Nishi, Osamu Mishima, Morihisa Kitano, Tsutomu K ...
    2011 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 074-078
    Published: January 15, 2011
    Released: April 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A 63-year-old male complained of left anterior and posterior chest pains with fever (38°C) in early August 2008. His symptoms persisted, and he was referred to our hospital with suspected pleuritis. Blood tests showed inflammation, and chest CT with contrast enhancement revealed a 3×8×10-cm heterogeneous lesion in the anterior mediastinum with an increased density of surrounding adipose tissue and bilateral pleural effusion. A second CT study after a two-week follow-up showed reduced inflammation, allowing the identification of two separate lesions in the anterior mediastinum. Based on the results of FDG-PET and MRI, the right-sided lesion was thought to be a thymoma (Masaoka stage III), and the left-sided lesion thymic hyperplasia. Trans-sternal radical thymectomy was performed. The pathological findings showed a thymoma (Masaoka stage II, WHO Type B2) surrounded by multiple cysts containing yellow atheromatous material, leading to the diagnosis of multilocular thymic cysts with thymoma. One-year postoperative follow-up CT showed no recurrence.
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  • You Kawaguchi, Tetsuo Hori, Shoji Kitamura, Koji Teramoto, Jun Hanaoka ...
    2011 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 079-083
    Published: January 15, 2011
    Released: April 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We report a rare case of thymoma presenting with cystic changes. A 71-year-old man presented with an anterior mediastinal tumor on computed tomography (CT) during postoperative follow-up for gastric cancer. Six months later, the tumor enlarged, and he was referred to our department. Radiographic examinations revealed that the inside of the tumor had a homogeneous density equivalent to water. We suspected a thymic cyst with a malignant component, and performed video-assisted thoracic surgery to remove it. During surgery, the tumor showed no invasion to the adjacent organs, and was removed easily. The tumor, measuring 55×40×20 mm, had a unilocular cyst containing clear yellowish fluid, and was pathologically diagnosed as a type B1 thymoma. It is generally thought that cystic changes of a thymoma are due to hemorrhage and necrosis occurring within it, and whose contents are necrotic tissue or clots. In contrast, a cystic thymoma containing clear fluid, like in the present case, may arise due to mechanisms different from necrosis. We consider the possibility that a cystic thymoma may originate from a thymic cyst and, thereafter, invade the cyst wall to grow.
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  • Daisuke Hokka, Wataru Nishio, Yoshimasa Maniwa, Masahiro Yoshimura
    2011 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 084-086
    Published: January 15, 2011
    Released: April 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A 73-year-old man, who underwent right upper lobectomy and plombage for pulmonary tuberculosis in 1958, was referred to our hospital with a diagnosis of chronic expanding hematoma after complaining of hemoptysis, right axillary swelling, and dyspnea in 2008. Chest CT showed a huge mass in the chest cavity protruding beyond the axilla and causing marked tracheal deviation to the left. He underwent hematoma evacuation and peeling through a modified Hemi-Clamshell approach after transcatheter arterial embolization of the subclavian artery branches. The postoperative course was uneventful. Dyspnea was resolved and he was discharged on the 20th postoperative day. The modified Hemi-Clamshell approach facilitates a wider opening of the sternocostal flap, with safe control of the entire subclavian vessels.
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  • Hironori Tenpaku, Ryo Maeshiro, Kentarou Inoue, Chiaki Kondo, Motoshi ...
    2011 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 087-090
    Published: January 15, 2011
    Released: April 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A 70-year-old woman who had undergone a right mammectomy for breast cancer followed by adjuvant chemotherapy showed a small nodule in the right S4 on CT of the chest 10 months after the operation. We could radiographically confirm the gradual enlargement of the nodule by sequential CT. Therefore, we performed a wedge resection of the nodule for a diagnosis. Following the intraoperative diagnosis of a small cell lung carcinoma, we performed right middle lobectomy and lymph node dissection. During the operation, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome was noted, caused by prolonged muscle relaxation. The tumor was diagnosed as a small cell lung carcinoma on immunohistochemical examination.
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  • Tetsuro Baba, Hidetaka Uramoto, Sohsuke Yamada, Taiji Kuwata, Mitsuhir ...
    2011 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 091-095
    Published: January 15, 2011
    Released: April 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A 72-year-old man presented with a right lung tumor and cavity formation. A right upper lobectomy and regional lymph node dissection were performed for the lung tumor. The tumor was diagnosed as a basaloid carcinoma of the lung on the basis of histopathological findings. Basaloid carcinoma of the lung is rare. The prognosis of the cancer is controversial, and a prospective study regarding adjuvant therapy should be carried out to improve the surgical results.
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  • Yasuto Sakaguchi, Noritaka Isowa
    2011 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 096-099
    Published: January 15, 2011
    Released: April 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A 38-year-old man with chest discomfort was admitted to our hospital. A chest radiograph and computed tomography showed the posterior mediastinal tumor surrounding the lower esophagus. FDG-PET showed high-level FDG accumulation in the tumor with a standardized uptake value max of 5.80, suggesting malignancy. We performed tumor biopsy by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for a diagnosis. The tumor was pathologically diagnosed as an esophageal leiomyoma.
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  • Daisuke Hokka, Koichi Yoshikawa, Masato Morimoto, Ryosuke Kamimura
    2011 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 100-102
    Published: January 15, 2011
    Released: April 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We experienced 2 cases of idiopathic esophageal perforation and 1 case of foreign body esophageal perforation during the 1 year from 2009 to 2010. Each patient underwent drainage and suture 8 hours after the onset (Case 1), 4 days after the onset (Case 2), and 7 days after the onset (Case 3). The postoperative courses of Cases 1 and 2 were uneventful, but Case 3 died of aortic rupture 10 days after surgery. Esophageal perforation is a serious disease that may lead to severe, fatal complications. It is important to diagnose it as soon as possible and treat appropriately, because the shorter the time from perforation to treatment, the better the prognosis.
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  • Toshiro Obuchi, Takayuki Imakiire, Daisuke Hamatake, Sou Miyahara, Tak ...
    2011 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 103-106
    Published: January 15, 2011
    Released: April 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background: Recently, more and more surgical simulators and organ models for surgical education have been developed. However, the efficacy of simulated surgery using such organ models has not been clearly evaluated. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy of simulated surgery employing anatomically correct lung models for learning major pulmonary resections. Materials and Methods: In this study, 35 medical students in the fifth grade, who had no experience of performing surgery, participated. The task was to draw pictures of a lung lobectomy as precisely as possible. At first, they studied lobectomy using a pulmonary surgery textbook, and then took the first comprehension test. Next, they performed simulated lobectomy using the lung model and took the second test. The answers were marked by two thoracic surgeons according to the guidelines we devised. An individual score was the average of scores marked by the two surgeons, and the full mark was 10. Results: Comparing the scores between the first and second tests, the average of the second test was significantly higher (1st vs. 2nd = 4.7 vs. 7.2; p <0.001). Conclusion: Simulated surgery using the lung model significantly helps trainees comprehend major lung resections.
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  • Noriyoshi Sawabata, Yoshitaka Fujii, Hisao Asamura, Hiroaki Nomori, Yo ...
    2011 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 107-123
    Published: January 15, 2011
    Released: April 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The Japan Lung Cancer Society, Japanese Association for Chest Surgery, and Japanese Respiratory Society jointly established the Japanese Joint Committee for Lung Cancer Registration. In 2010, analyses of 11,663 cases of lung cancer that underwent surgical resection in 2004 were performed, then the findings were registered and collected for analysis by the committee. The survival rate for all cases was 69.6%, while the 5-year survival rate in males (n=7.369) was 63.0% and 80.9% in females (n=4,294). The 5-year survival rates by c-stage (UICC Ver. 6 and Ver. 7) were as follow: IA (n=6,295, 6,295), 82.0% and 82.0%; IB (n=2,788, 2,398), 63.4% and 66.1%, IIA (n=203, 819), 55.4% and 54.5%; IIB (n=899, 648), 48.6% and 46.4%; IIIA (n=940, 1,216), 43.3% and 42.8%; IIIB (n=407, 90), 41.6% and 40.3%; and IV (n=131, 256), 29.1% and 31.4%, respectively. The 5-year survival rates by p-STAGE (UICC Ver. 6 and Ver. 7) were as follow: IA (n=5,611, 4,978), 85.9% and 86.8%; IB (n=2,389, 2,552), 69.3% and 73.9%; IIA (n=336, 941), 60.9% and 61.6%; IIB (n=977, 848), 51.1% and 49.8%; IIIA (n=1354, 1804), 41.0% and 40.9%; IIIB (n=799, 106), 36.7% and 27.8%, and IV (n=188, 434), 27.8% and 27.9%, respectively. The 5-year survival rates by histological type were as follow: adenocarcinoma, 74.9%; squamous cell carcinoma, 59.1%; large cell carcinoma, 53.3%; small cell carcinoma, 52.6%; and adenosquamous cell carcinoma, 50.8%. Operative death occurred in 48 cases (0.4%) and hospital death in 46 (0.4%).
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  • Shinichiro Miyoshi, Mitsutaka Kadokura, Haruhiko Kondo, Yukihito Saito ...
    2011 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 124-132
    Published: January 15, 2011
    Released: April 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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