This paper focuses on motivation of Japanese English learners from a remedial learners' point of view because there are difficulties in remedial English instruction in Japanese colleges. Remedial English instruction should be undertaken with a firm grasp of the roots of the learners' motivational deficiencies. This study aims to investigate those motivational deficiencies. First, it discusses differences in level of motivation in remedial level English learning among three learning groups with different attainment. Methods of enhancing the motivation of remedial English learners should be different between levels of achievement and for learners of different past learning experiences. And then, it discusses how the subjects obtained their motivational deficiencies.
The effectiveness of supplementary lessons in the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences for students with insufficient knowledge of high school-level physics is described. Results of a pre-test given before the start of lectures in physics showed that test scores of 62% of first-year students in the faculty were less than 5 (perfect score: 31). Fourteen supplementary lessons in physics were offered in addition to the regular lectures in the first semester. Students who attended the supplementary classes tended to have a lower average score in the pre-test than that for students who did not attend the supplementary classes but a higher average score in the post-test given after the regular lectures. The pass rate in regular examinations and the unit acquisition rate for students who attended supplementary classes were 73% and 100%, respectively, while those for students who did not attend supplementary classes were 47% and 92%, respectively. These results indicate that the supplementary lessons are effective for remedial education in physics.
Saga University has provided the class of full e-Learning on VOD (Video On Demand) since 2002, and Blended Learning has been introduced into a subject of the Basic English class. We have examined some educational techniques by using e-Learning and in this class, a new system of returning the teacher's vocal feedback to vocal assignments is introduced and it has high appraisal from both the teacher and students. The teacher returns his phonetic comments by sound, checking each student's pronunciation, intonation and rhythm. This paper reports on some effects of 'Vocal Assignments and Feedback', the results of teaching materials made for e-Learning, and the results of the class. In addition, to facilitate the teacher's introduction and continuance, it reports on the work that the supporting staff is doing.
In this paper, the author focuses on scaffolding activities to motivate students to learn in remedial classes at college. Based on the conditions for motivation indicated by Dornyei (2001), a study was conducted to investigate what teachers should do in the classroom. To motivate students, teachers should first create an atmosphere where students can learn without anxiety. The sequence of scaffolding instruction worked well in a relaxed environment. Furthermore, good scaffolding activities facilitated a supportive classroom atmosphere. Through the teacher's careful assessment of students' levels, students were given appropriate scaffolding activities in the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), which led them to the stage where they could do activities alone. In a remedial class, teachers should take more responsibility to create a good classroom atmosphere to motivate students intrinsically by providing success-oriented scaffolding.