We measure an atmospheric electric field inside the nonthunderstorm clouds, because the studies of the electric charge structures inside the nonthunderstorm clouds have been few. For this purpose, a balloon with a gondola equipped with two field mills was used in balloon experiments for university students (BEXUS) organized by Europe Space Agency (ESA). From the experiment, two peaks of positive atmospheric electric filed were observed, so that simple charged spherical model is constructed. The estimated value of charges inside the cloud follows the results of Imyanitov and Chubarina (1965). In future, much more experiments should be required for the study of nonthunderstorm electricity.
Our paper estimates possible impact of urban civilization on the global climate. An effective model is used of the ''heat island'' centered above the city, it describes the temperature distribution over the urban area of a radial-circular structure. Contribution was estimated of the big cities into the median temperature of the Earth. It is shown that heat production in the radial-circular cities is able to deteriorate the life conditions at the center of a city with great population. According to the model, contribution from the update cities into the global median temperature is evaluated as ~0.04 ° C. Simultaneously, a thousand of cities of the 10 million inhabitants each is able to raise the global median temperature by 0.4° C.
Broadband radio interferometers have been developed to locate the sources of VHF/UHF radiation from lightning discharges in three spatial dimensions (3D) and time. The VHF broadband interferometer locates sources of radiation events at VHF band by extracting the differences of phases at various frequency components of Fourier spectra between a pair of antennas. Lightning images are derived by sensing the electromagnetic waves radiated from a lightning discharge process such as negative stepped leader. In this paper, a VHF broadband digital interferometer has been used to estimate the 3D lightning location from only one site. The site consists of three broadband antennas and a GPS receiver. As one of the observation results, a negative downward cloud-to-ground lightning flash will be presented and located using only one site.
In order to observe atmospheric ions in the free troposphere, measurements of atmospheric positive ions in the critical mobility range 5.0 and 0.63 cm2/Vs were conducted at the summit of Mt. Fuji (35.36N, 138.73E, 3776 m a.s.l.) from Aug. 8 to 23, 2011. Positive atmospheric ions were found to have a clear diurnal variation, with minimum concentrations during nighttime and with maximum daytime, which is possibly linked to ions transportation by valley breeze. This variation is clearer when the observation station is out of clouds in planetary boundary layer. A strong anti-correlation was found between air ion concentrations and coagulation sink. Enhanced ion concentrations were found when air mass had been transported over the sea and coagulation sink value is low.
In our previous paper, statistical relation between anomalous line-of-sight propagation in the VHF band and occurrences of earthquakes was presented. Basically, the anomalous propagation is mainly caused by anomalous refractive index of low atmosphere. In the present paper, the anomalies of the refractive index is captured by both the direct observation of radio ducts and the anomalous propagation in the VHF band, and the relation between them and the earthquakes are statistically clarified. Furthermore, the influences of meteorological conditions, which may disperse the anomalies of refractive index in the low atmosphere, are discussed. As a result, relation between anomalous propagation and earthquakes became increasingly clear by using anomalous propagation that concurrent with S-type ducts and meteorological conditions, wind velocity.