This paper reveals the location dynamics and its contributing factors in Japanese paper industries from 1990s. Japanese paper industry was characterized as structural recession industry and received national political intervention, like a cartel for rationalization in 1980s. But from 1990s, retreat of political intervention and decrease in demand, paper manufacturing companies started spontaneous industry reorganization, especially through M&A and the scrapping of excess production capacities, and oligopoly has been advanced since 1990s.
The locational dynamics of Japanese paper industries are summarized as below points: in the print/ information form sphere (1) main factories of each company, especially located in provincial area and belonged to the merging company, have been increasing amount of production. (2) on the other hand, old or small and medium-sized factories located in inner metropolitan area and belonged to the merged company have been decreased or stopped production, or were shut-down and transferred its production to the main factories.
To explain the above results, capital investment for production equipment and availability and form of industrial water are examined as the contributing factors. As a result, main factories after M&A have favorable conditions for increasing production in the following points. Firstly, main factories have has few inefficient production machines in the early 1990’s, possibility of productivity improvement was high through introducing new equipment. So, each company invested new paper machines only in specific key factories. Secondly, factories that are increasing production have advantages accessing for industry water supply, in the point of amounts and costs. Key factories can use a large amount of cheaper river water flow supply than other water supply form, like industrial water services by public sector. In view of these circumstances, in the end of political intervention and the demand decrease, intensive production in factories with high profitability aiming at productivity improvement is a significant factor that causes location dynamics in current paper industry.
This paper aims at analyzing and comparing the difference between two flows; 1) the tourism flow shown as tourism demand, and 2) the remittance flow by immigrants. The study focuses on the small islands in the Pacific region since the issue of the migration and remittance are keys of the economy in this region as the MIRAB economic model indicates. In addition many of island regions are dependent upon international trade for their economic structure. Tourism, as one of the service trade, is especially significant for their economies. On the other hand, these flow data surrounding the island economy have many zero flows compared with the developed countries, and since the number of samples is small, few analysis using the econometric method have been done as yet. In this paper, the gravity equation is applied to show the determinants of the two flows respectively with consideration of the zero-flow data.
As a result, basal variables in the gravity equation such as income, market size and distance effect are similar tendencies in both flows. In particular, income on both the origin and destination sides and distance effects show elasticity while market size on both sides is inelastic, although all of variables are significant. Meanwhile, price effect, and colonial and language relationships respectively, show the differences between the two flows. The coefficients of remittance flow are indicated higher than tourism flow in these variables. Moreover, this paper carried out the selection of the variables to seek the best model with AIC. The result shows both model were selected with the same variables to explain the flows.
This paper concludes that it is necessary to take account of both relationship between tourism demand and migration issues in considering the island economies since the result shows a similar tendency between two flows.
This paper aims to examine the context in which social capital works effectively in sustaining agriculture in the loquat production areas of Nagasaki City. The limitation of social capital is also discussed, considering the transformation of production areas. The case study area is the oldest production area of loquats.
In Nagasaki Prefecture, loquat production was increased in consequence of the production adjustment of mandarin oranges in the 1970s. In the 1980s, loquat production in greenhouses was started to expand the harvest season. After the decrease of production in greenhouses, loquat production has been sustained due to adoption of new varieties and technical innovations. The continuation of loquat production is based on the shipping association established in each local settlement and on the close coordination with the center for agricultural development and extension. The shipping association contributes not only to intensive distribution but also to the accumulation of bonding social capital. Furthermore, confidential relationships between some diligent farmers and administrative officers has resulted in improved agriculture, which could be regarded as a kind of bridging social capital.
Recently, however, the significance of social capital has decreased due to the decrease in the number of farmers. In contrast to the situation in which greenhouse production was introduced, the participation of young farmers in a revitalization project has been passive. Along with the aging of farmers, a mismatch between reality in the community and external support has partially arisen.