2 years have gone by the launch of new training for beginner nurses (Health, Labour and Welfare Ministry, 2010). Beginner nurses, who don't have enough nursing skill, are expected to learn the base of nursing practical skill from full-fledged training. The purpose of this research is to clarify learning process from nursing practice experience of the beginner nurses who receive instruction under beginner nursing-personnel training. From 9 beginner nurses interviews, beginner nurses aim to learn nursing skills, but it become a road to the appear of subjective ego (Hayakawa, 1994) leads to reflective thinking stage. Also, it can be said that they find out meaning of nursing from this study. Senior nurses who support the growth of the beginner nurse provide assistance corresponding to the process of learning such beginner nurses.
The objective of this research was to clarify the effects that collaborative reflection with colleague teachers and teaching-practice repetition within in-school training had on the development of young teachers' teaching abilities. To accomplish this objective, focus was placed on grade teachers' lesson study in an elementary school, and an investigation was conducted for a year-six social-studies history unit, "The World of the Samurai" (9 hours). The results of this investigation showed that first, in grade teachers' lesson study, young teachers would repeat the same class, visit and observe each other's classes, and then hold a study meeting. With regard to the cognitive aspects, it was clarified that each time the class was repeated, the teachers aimed to make more concrete and further refine their understanding of the teaching materials and their responses to the children, leading to deepening of learning. Second, the effect of their collaborative reflection with their colleagues was seen in their teaching practice. Additionally, it was observed that this collaborative reflection in the study meeting after the classes affected the formation of the teachers' teaching abilities and led to an improvement in these abilities.