Recently, there have been some infrastructure projects conducted by Private Finance Initiative (PFI), most of these projects relatively small scale. However, in the future, it is considered that PFI method will be used for transportation planning. In these projects it is important to have an economic analysis so that we may confirm whether or not these project managements work well. Moreover, public concern of the effect of cars on environmental contamination has been increasing recently, and so it seems necessary to consider their impact. For such a reason, an economic analysis on a Light Rail Transit (LRT) project with consideration for an environmental tax for cars as well as external costs of road transport (air-pollution, noise, accidents etc.) was conducted.
This paper proposes the introduction of a small, light-weight electric vehicle with a single-passenger (Economy-Running EV) operating at minimum power. Driving power source in the trial electric vehicle using a fuel cell with a 24V, 200W is aided by hydrogen storage material filled-up to 1.5MPa instead of a battery. At present, running characteristics of Economy-Running EV using a brushless dc motor as the drive system measures the current and voltage supplied to it, and investigates the mileage when that is run at a specific speed using a filled-up fuel cell. As a result, at a speed of 23km/h, generating current and voltage of fuel cell are 4.5A and 22.5V, respectively. That is, generated output of fuel cell is 101W, and mileage is about 62.5mile (100km).
A combination of different electric energy supply with different feature is designed for high acceleration and high ranges and improves the whole system properties. Energy supply system with energy hybridization of high energy and high power need an intelligent management system in order to control power and state of charge. In this paper we proposed a fuzzy prediction control strategy of energy management system (EMS) based on a new forward-looking and causal structure model. This control strategy is mainly consisted of three controllers, including SOC prediction controller, recharge controller and power allocation controller. Simulation result shows that the driving range, the fuel economy and efficiency of fuzzy prediction control strategy have rapidly improvement compared with simple allocation (look-up table) control strategy. In the next step we will apply this control strategy with actual EV through "dspace autobox".
As concerns about global and local pollution have grown, stricter and stricter environmental legislations are enforced. A fuel cell city bus was developed in the last year, which is supported by Ministry of Science and Technology in China. The simulation of an electrically powered hydraulic steering system used in the developed fuel cell city bus is studied. The layout of the steering system is introduced. Resistive force of the steering tire originating from the vertical load and lateral force of tire is computed, and then the resistant force of hydraulic cylinder can be determined. The DC motor is used to drive the hydraulic vane pump and dynamic equation of the system is established. Simulation is performed with the help of Simulink of MATLAB. Relationships between hydraulic pressure and forward speed, voltage of armature of motor are simulated, respectively, which is helpful to determine parameters of hydraulic vane pump, DC motor in electrically powered hydraulic steering system in electric vehicles.
In order to deeply understand the influence on the performance of the Battery pack, which comes from the battery pack attended mode, the battery pack attended mode is studied. Through lots of running experiments of EV, the models of battery pack attended mode are established and the influencing factors that influence the reliability of battery pack attended mode and voltage inconsistency are analyzed. The selection principle of attended mode is brought forward.
Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle has recently become one of the focuses in the development of electric vehicles. China has launched a large project-Fuel Cell City Bus. The City Bus is a series Fuel Cell hybrid electric vehicle. All the components of the power-train have their own Electronic Control Unit (ECU). They communicate with the Vehicle Control Unit (VCU) through the Controller Area Network (CAN). VCU is the core of the power-train, it makes decisions according to the information from the driver and other ECUs. The control strategy of the VCU is one of the key technologies. In this paper, the design of the control strategy is divided into two main modules and many blocks. Some of the blocks are presented in detail. The control strategy is tested and calibrated on the hybrid power-train test bench. The test results show that the control strategy can meet the request of the City Bus.
A drive of EV R&D in China began years ago. The participants have achieved a lot in filed of both whole vehicle and key components. The paper presents the R&D status of electric vehicle in China for reference, which includes pure electric vehicle, hybrid vehicle and fuel cell vehicle as well as the key components such as motor and propulsion system, battery and MEMS and the test base and standards will be also included in the paper.
Research was put into the shape of the hull with the objective of making the electric boat run efficiently. This project examined the practical power characteristics of a sightseeing boat of about 20 m in length that would travel at a velocity of 5-8 km/h. It is hoped that the obtained information will be applied to future hull designs. This paper reports result of comparisons between previously proposed characteristics that were tested using a 1:4 scale boat fabricated specifically for this research.
Prolonging the life of lead-acid batteries which are used for vehicles is an important research project for the further development of motorization and because of the finite nature of resources. Based on the assumption that the deterioration of batteries is caused by sulphating at the anodes, a method of charging a large current in a short period of time in order to activate Pb-ions at anodes is possible. But if the electric charge of a large current is conducted simply by using direct current, it will cause a large amount of thermo genesis in batteries, and this will hasten the deterioration of the batteries. In order to prevent this, a pulse-charging method with a high duty cycle was considered. Batteries (28AH) for starting vehicles were used for this experiment, and the deterioration of the batteries was evaluated from the discharge time at approx. 0.3C charge and discharge time. An experiment was conducted by equalizing the average charge current between cases using direct current and cases using a pulse. As a result, pulse charging prolonged the possible discharge time of the batteries.
This paper describes the modification of a computer-controlled walker, which is called the "Personal Cart" in order to actively support and stabilize the walking of healthy elderly persons by their selves. The cart system consists of computers and its controlling devices. The cart has four wheels, of which the left front wheel is driven by a DC motor. Expanding the space between the front wheels increases the stability of the cart. Furthermore, its operability was improved by the connection of an axis handle to the front wheels with a joint. The cart keeps the balance even if the weight of an operator is applied to the handle of the cart as the position of an operator is near the center of gravity of the triangle that is made between the front and rear wheels. The controller, which is synthesized based on a fuzzy theory, is set in the cart system to move while maintaining a certain distance between the operator and the cart. The membership functions of the proposed fuzzy controller are changed according to the angle of slopes, in order to improve its operability. The proposed system was confirmed to be useful in reducing the workload of the operator when walking on a slope with some baggage by experimentations.
Conducting driving cycle analysis (DCA) using trip data collected from vehicles operated in the field is very difficult. In fact, no comprehensive approach has been conceived to date, except those using standard driving cycles. A successful DCA could significantly enhance our understanding of vehicle performance and readily relate it to real-life driving. In the past few years, we have been developing tools for vehicle performance analysis (VPA). In particular, we were able to collect data from a fleet of 15 Hyundai Santa Fe electric sports utility vehicles (e-SUVs) operated on Oahu, Hawaii, from July 2001 to June 2003. A fuzzy logic-based driving pattern recognition (FL-DPR) technique was used to perform DCA. This technique was successfully applied to create a compositional driving histogram, called "trip driving pattern composition (TDPC)," for each vehicle, which enables us to analyze vehicle performance in great details.
A prototype of multi purpose electric vehicle (EV) is developed based on the concept toward future transportation. The EV is developed based on the concepts of smallness and multi-purpose of 'Structure' and 'control'. The size of the developed EV is 1m-width, 2m-length and 30cm-height. The EV has the flat floor on which a variety of upper structures are easily fixed. Moreover, traction, steering and braking are electrically controlled; so various control devices are used for controlling the vehicle. The developed prototype EV has potential to contribute will contribute not only to solving the problems of air pollution, energy consumption and congestions, but also to reducing cost of production, resulting in wider and faster prevalence. This study explains application of the developed EV and evaluates this application by experiments.
In the department of Intelligent Mechanical Systems Engineering, Kochi University of Technology, the synthesis lecture has been being carried out in 3rd and 4th years of the undergraduate program. In order to provide an active synthetic learning opportunity, self-learning environment is of great importance rather than just teaching-based classes. Project themes, therefore, are provided for each team in our laboratory, which belongs to the authors. In this report, the designing and manufacturing activity using small-sized electric vehicles is described. As well as the design, the manufacturing aspect is also considered to be of great importance for mechanical engineers. As a capstone learning course, two teams in our laboratory tried to design and manufacture. One is a hand-made small-sized electric automobile, and the other a hand-made electric motorcycle. The former is suitably gentle for elderly drivers, and is the revised one from the vehicle made last year.
The shape of today's vehicles on the actual automotive market is based on the packaging design of an internal combustion engine (ICE) that is very different of that of an electric vehicle (EV). In this paper specific form characteristics that express the difference between an EV and an ICE vehicle are researched and illustrated. Based upon these determinations, three different outer designs are applied on one and the same high performance electric vehicle, named KAZ. At first, KAZ represents a half box car that is shaped by two different units colored in 2 gray colors, two 'air intakes' are set in the front of the car left and right and secondly, KAZ is reformed to be driven on a traffic road. The third KAZ shaped with a renewed form design of the front panel, shows an environmental friendly and full electric powered expression.
We have discovered that a low current long charge for lead-acid batteries is very beneficial towards recovering the original Ah capacity or maintaining the initial full capacity. Most recent commercial chargers are designed for high rate quick charging. These commercial chargers include those installed in trucks and busses. In this paper, the nature of the chemical reaction in the charging process of the negative electrode is discussed in order to understand the benefit of the low current charge.