This paper introduces the performance of PHV comparing other ICE, EV, FCHV. Toyota's future outlook of automobiles is also shown based on the use of PHV. It is pointed out that HV and PHV are the most realistic solutions at this time. HV technology is not only a technological bridge but the core technology for future EV, PHV and FCV.
As part of the new generation of electric vehicles, production of "i-MiEV" was announced on June 5, 2009, and sales began from July 23. This paper introduces the conditions of random testing through world deployment during this past year, developments in the area of electric vehicles, and also discusses the future direction of evolution.
International standardization is an essential issue in allowing the development and deployment of new technologies such as electrically propelled vehicles (battery-electrics, hybrids and fuel cell vehicles). Ongoing work in the field by the International Electrotechnical Commission focuses both on energy storage and charging infrastructure. This paper presents current developments in the field.
Trends of technology developments of lithium and lithium-ion rechargeable batteries for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in HEVs (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in national R&D projects of Japan are reviewed. In addition, roadmap of current status for R&D for improving specific power and specific energy of the batteries in national project in Japan are overviewed.
Battery state of charge is related with available capacity. Battery available capacity varies with temperature and discharge current. A good way to forecast available capacity is Peukert's equation. In order to verify the practicability of Peukert's equation at room temperature and low temperature, 1/3C, 1C, 2C, 3C rate discharge experiments were undertaken. The result indicates Peukert's equation is suitable for estimating available battery of NiMH battery in 25 C. The result also indicates, at low temperatures, Peukert's equation is practical for NiMH battery at low current and unpractical in high current. Based on the result, a piece-wise Peukert's equation with Temperature Correction Factor to NiMH Battery State of Charge (SOC) estimation has been proposed. The proposed method improves the precision of SOC estimantion.
A control strategy was developed to improve fuel economy, enhance engine efficiency as well as extend battery cycle life in the series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV) powertrain. The controller was based on fuzzy logic, fixed-boundary-layer sliding mode controllers (FBLSMCs) and an optimized battery charge scenario. The fuzzy logic based energy management controller is developed to determine the engine power based on two inputs, battery state-of-charge (SOC) and vehicle power demand. The goal of the fuzzy logic based controller is to enhance the engine and battery operation efficiency and at the mean time, extend battery life. An appropriate battery charge scenario is designed to remove surge charge current, and avoid persistently-high charge power, which are positive factors to the battery lifetime extension. Besides, two robust FBLSMCs against uncertain disturbances are configured in the powertrain control system, responsible for engine speed control and engine torque control, respectively. Simulation results are obtained for comparison between the proposed and conventional powertrain control schemes. Through these simulations, the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed powertrain control strategy are validated.
Heat transfer is the science that seeks to predict the energy transfer that takes place between material bodies as a result of a temperature difference. When designing an electric motor, the study of heat transfer is as important as electromagnetic and mechanical design. However, due to its three dimensional nature, it is generally considered to be more difficult than the prediction of the electromagnetic behaviour. For this reason, and the fact that the majority of designers have an electrical rather than mechanical background, thermal analysis is usually not given as much emphasis as the electromagnetic design. This paper presents the thermal model simplified of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) with radial flux for electric vehicle (EV) application. The thermal design technique used is the analytical lumped circuit. The equivalent circuit of the motor is implemented and simulated with MATLAB simulator. Simulations by Motor-CAD software were made in order to shows the accuracy of the proposed thermal model.
In order to execute the global issue mandated for an environmentally friendly vehicle, research on the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) has been developed in the Mechanical Engineering Department of Universitas Indonesia (MED-UI). The ultimate goal of this research is simply to develop a low-cost HEV which uses energy most efficiently. A small-sized HEV seating one to two passengers has been the main focus towards completing this ultimate goal. Five prototypes in ten years have been developed, and Prototype III is one of the most inventive. The major features of this prototype are the power take-off system, frame design and the control system.