Electric vehicles (EVs) are clean due to their zero local emissions and low global emissions. They are also green due to their environmental friendliness, since electricity can be generated by renewable sources. Despite these obvious benefits, EVs have not been widely used around the world; the key reasons are due to their high price, short driving range or lack of charging facilities. With the growing concerns on price fluctuation, depletion of petroleum resources and global warming, there is fast growing interest on EVs in Macau. A Mitsubishi "i-MiEV" was used for experiment and evaluation, the gasoline-powered counterpart "i" will be used as baseline. In this paper, the performance of a mini-EV is evaluated specifically in sub-tropical environment of Macau.
This paper presents an implementation of a regenerative braking system in an electrically operated two wheeler using supercapacitors (SC), thus partially salvaging the heat energy previously dissipating due to friction. Kinetic energy is converted into useful energy in the developed system which gets converted in to heat energy in conventional braking. Regenerative braking is demonstrated on a motorized bicycle to establish its concept for electric two wheelers. The charging behaviour of the supercapacitor bank is studied under a regenerative environment to implement it in motorized bicycle. The supercapacitor bank provides assistance to the battery during starting/acceleration, thereby improving the life of the battery.
With an ever increasing demand for energy for transportation and alarmingly high levels of pollution caused due to excessive consumption of fossil fuels, the Research & Development in Electric/Hybrid Electric Vehicles is being carried out at an accelerated pace. The success of any of the above approaches will depend on the capabilities of the batteries i.e., power density, cost, maintenance and life span etc. This paper proposes a novel, flexible strategy for Multi Objective Control of Power Controller (MOPC) for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV). Here a new control strategy has been implemented with three different configurations like Constant Fuel Cell Current Mode, Constant Battery Current mode and Constant Battery Voltage Mode. Based on the load demand on the vehicle, control strategy is automatically selected for propulsion or charging purposes, by using computer and interfacing circuits.
In this paper, a power management control strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) based on Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines-Electrical Variable Transmission (PMSM-EVT) is developed. This method introduces an intelligent strategy for vehicle's power distribution, during driving and braking, between the system's plants by Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC). This has been investigated throughout two main aspects. The first is the optimum power splitting between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the PMSM-EVT machines that controls the throttle angle degree of the ICE in order to make it work in a high efficiency region; and the second is optimizing the vehicle'energy capture at braking or deceleration. These goals have been accomplished by two FL controllers. Designing of these controllers are mainly based on the function and power ratings of each plant. Because of the EVT machines make the operation strategy of this type of HEVs different from the others, the building of the fuzzy variables (fuzzy rules, membership functions, boundaries and limits) is different. The fuzzy logic controllers were designed based on the state of charge of battery, vehicle's velocity and the vehicle's power. The strategy is validated by Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) simulation model strategy based on the software Matlab/Simulink. The results show that the energy management strategy is effective to control the engine's operating points within the highest efficiency region as well as to sustain the SOC of the battery while satisfy the drive ability. The vehicle's performances have been analyzed throughout a combined trip driving cycle that represents the normal and the worst operating conditions.
The initial findings and performance of a prototype electric vehicle conversion of a famous Malaysian city car; the perodual kancil, is presented in this paper. The 660 cc, three cylinder carbureted engine rated at 31 Hp (22.1 KW) was replaced with a 48-72 V series wound DC motor rated at 8 KW continuous and 20KW peak. The battery pack consists of eight T105 Trojan 6 V, 225 Ah deep cycle lead acid battery which builds up a voltage of 48 V. In addition to this, an ultracapacitor module (165 F, 48 V) is connected in parallel using high power contactors in order to investigate the increase in performance criteria such as acceleration, range, battery life etc which have been proven in various literatures via simulation studies. A data acquisition system is setup in order to collect real world driving data from the electric vehicle on the fly along a fixed route. Analysis of collected driving data is done using MATLAB software and comparison of performance of the electric vehicle with and without ultracapacitor module is made.
Electric vehicles (EVs) speed and torque control undergo different road constraints is very difficult using classical control methods. To overcome this problem a comparative studies between two control methods is proposed, the first one is space vector modulation technique based direct torque control (DTC-SVM) and the second one is the direct torque control proposed. Acceleration, steering and speed reference computations are ensured by the electronic differential, this driving process permit to steer each driving wheels at any curve separately. The two proposed control methods constitute an efficient driving force estimations, the SVM-DTC is characterized with less torque ripple oscillations for this reason, the hysteresis controller is substituted by PI controller and switch table is replace with space vector modulation. Our double driven electric vehicle is simulated in Matlab SIMULINK environment. The electric vehicle was tested in different constraints road: straight, slope, inverse slope and curved roads, the present electric propulsion system results present satisfactory.
This paper presents a hybrid electric vehicle transmission chain simulator connected to longitudinal vehicle motion. The transmission simulator uses electric actuators to reproduce the mechanical characteristics of a real vehicle engine and its transmission chain. The developed approach allows to validate transmission and vehicle dynamic studies (control of automatic or robotized gearboxes, test of heat engine, dynamic behavior and passenger comfort...) without need to the real transmission system and the real environment of the vehicle. The proposed system is used to carry out a vehicle automated driving for a cruise control test. The control law strategy consists on a first sliding mode. The performances of the controller are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.