Journal of Applied Glycoscience
Online ISSN : 1880-7291
Print ISSN : 1344-7882
ISSN-L : 1344-7882
Volume 47 , Issue 1
Showing 1-17 articles out of 17 articles from the selected issue
  • Tomoko Maeda, Naofumi Morita
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 1-12
    Published: March 31, 2000
    Released: February 23, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The optimum conditions for breadmaking composed of various amounts of polished-graded flour and commonly milled soft-type wheat cultivar ‘Norm 61’ (N61) were studied. The viscoelastic properties of the doughs were also tested. When 30 or 50% of N61 was substituted with the 70-40% graded flour (Fraction B) of the whole wheat grain, the loaf volume and softness of bread crumbs increased with optimum amounts of water of 75 and 85%, respectively. Moreover, the addition of pentosanase (PEN) or cellulase (CEL) to the substituted N61 distinctly improved the loaf volume and retarded the retrogradation of bread crumbs as compared with those of N61 alone. Especially, the addition of PEN or CEL to the 50% graded-flour-substituted N61 having 85% water clearly increased viscoelastic parameters, such as the modulus of elasticity (y) and viscosity coefficient (v), as compared with those of N61 alone. In Farinograph data, 50% graded-flour-substituted N61 also decreased the arrival and development times, but increased the stability time. For the DSC result, 50% substitution tended to decrease gelatinization enthalpy with the addition of PEN or CEL. Microscopic observation of the 50% graded-flour-substituted N61 containing PEN showed that most of the starch granules were covered with extensible gluten and expanded still more during fermentation. In the case of the dough with the optimum water content, the gluten matrix was more fibrous and continuous, followed by sufficient gelatinization of starch granules as compared with N61 alone. Therefore, in the case of substituted N61 flour with graded flour, the optimum amount of water and hydrolysis of pentosan or cellulose in the endosperm and bran by PEN or CEL were needed to make good dough and baking properties.
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  • Masahiro Kojima, Koji Ogawa, Kazuya Kohayakawa
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 13-19
    Published: March 31, 2000
    Released: February 23, 2011
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    Cornstarch was adjusted to 16% moisture content (dry basis), blended with shellac (natural resin secreted by lac bugs) at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 10% (w/w) and extruded in a twin-screw extruder at a screw speed of 200 rpm and 110, 140 and 170°C barrel temperatures. Expansion ratio, bulk density, mean cell size, water solubility, X-ray diffraction pattern and molecular degradation of the extrudates were measured. Expansion ratio and bulk density were dependent on shellac content, ranging from 1.72 to 14.61 and 62 to 273 kg/m3, respectively. Mean cell size of the extrudates increased with increasing in shellac content up to 6%, but distributions were scattered. Water solubility of ground extrudates decreased with increasing shellac content. V- and E-form X-ray diffraction patterns suggested the formation of cornstarch-shellac complexes, like starch-lipid complexes. Size exclusion chromatography of starch-shellac extrudates showed that shellac suppressed the degradation of starch during extrusion.
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  • Tetsuya Yamada, Yoshinori Fujimoto, Takuo Adachi, Makoto Hisamatsu, Ka ...
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 21-26
    Published: March 31, 2000
    Released: July 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Air oxidation of α-cyclodextrin, β-cyclodextrin and γ-cyclodextrin with platinum-asbestos catalyst was attempted. The oxidation products were separated with GPC on Toyopearl HW-40S for γ-cyclodextrin (eluent: water) and on HW-50S for a-cyclodextrin (eluent: water) and β-cy-clodextrin (eluent: 10% methanol). The yields of oxides for the three species (α-, β- and γ-cy-clodextrin) estimated from GPC were 17.7, 10.8 and 23.4%, respectively. However, HPAEC analysis proved that the oxides of the three species were mixtures of regio-isomers.
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  • Masayuki Suzuki, Takehiro Unno, Gentaro Okada
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 27-33
    Published: March 31, 2000
    Released: June 28, 2010
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    The kinetic studies of an extracellular dextrin dextranase (DDase, EC 2.4.1.2) from Acetobacter capsulatum ATCC 11894 were performed by using a series of maltooligosaccharides (DP= 3-7) and short-chain amylose (DP=17.3). The kinetic parameters (Km, Vmax, Ki and Ks) of DDase for the above maltodextrins were first determined. The conversion rates from various maltodextrins into dextran increased with the increase in the DP number of donor substrates. The maximum yield of product dextran reached about 74% by using short-chain amylose as the substrate. The dextran synthesis reaction by DDase was strongly inhibited by maltose. The mode of inhibition of dextran synthesis by DDase action was mixed. From the inhibition studies of DDase, maltose molecules were definitely able to be glucosyl group acceptors. Therefore, various oligosaccharides were able to be formed from a high concentration of maltose as glucosyl group acceptors. The oligosaccharides formed were separated, purified and analyzed by 1H-and 13C-NMR. The chemical structures of the purified glucooligosaccharides were identified as 4-O-α-isomaltosyl-D-glucose, 4-O-α-isomal-totriosyl-D-glucose, 4-O -α-isomaltotetraosyl-D-glucose, 4-O-α-isomaltopentaosyl-D-glucose and 4-O-α-isomaltohexaosyl-D-glucose.
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  • Masamichi Okada, Koichi Ogawa, Taichi Usui
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 35-44
    Published: March 31, 2000
    Released: July 01, 2011
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    β-D-Galactosyl and β-N-acetylglucosaminyl maltooligosaccharide derivatives, which are substituted at the nonreducing-end glucosyl residue of p-nitrophenyl α-maltooligosaccharides (maltotriose to maltopentaose), were regioselectively synthesized using the transglycosylation reaction of β-D-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans and hen-egg white lysozyme, respectively. On porcine and human pancreatic α-amylases, the hydrolytic pattern and kinetic parameter (ko/Km) of both end-blocked maltooligosaccharides, p-nitrophenyl 45 -O-β-D-galactosyl-α-maltopentaoside (Ga14 G5P), p-nitrophenyl 44 -O-β-D-galactosyl-α-maltotetraoside (Ga14 G4P) and p-nitrophenyl 43 -O-β-D-galactosyl- α-maltotrioside (Ga14 G3P), were very close to those of p-nitrophenyl α-maltohexaoside (G6P), p-nitrophenyl α-maltopentaoside (G5P) and p-nitrophenyl α-maltotetraoside (G4P), respectively, corresponding to their degrees of polymerization, while p-nitrophenyl 35 -O-β-N-acetylglu-cosaminyl-α-maltopentaoside (NG5P) and p-nitrophenyl 34 -O-β-N-acetylglucosaminyl-α-mal-totetraoside (NG4P) behaved as G5P and G4P, respectively, as if the G1cNAc group is ignored. On the contrary, p -nitrophenyl 65 -O-β-D-galactosyl-α-maltopentaoside (Ga16 G5P) caused a remarkable decrease in the ko/Km value compared with G5P, and p -nitrophenyl 64 -O-β-D-galactosyl-α-mal-totetraoside (Ga16 G4P) acted only slightly for the α-amylases. A series of maltooligosaccharides with both ends blocked were shown to be advantageous as probes for substrate recognition at the active site in porcine and human pancreatic α-amylases.
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  • Yoji Kato, Mikihiko Kobayashi
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 45-48
    Published: March 31, 2000
    Released: July 01, 2011
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    A xylan and xyloglucan were isolated from the 24% KOH extract of beet pulp. A methylation analysis and enzymic degradation studies on the polysaccharides showed that the former polysac-charide had a linear β-(1→4)-linked D-xylopyranosyl backbone with side chains, and the latter was built up of repeating-oligosaccharide units, XXXG, XXLG, XLXG, XXFG, XLLG and XLFG [where each (l→4)-β-linked D-glucosyl residue in the backbone is given a one-letter code accord-ing to its substituents: G, β-D-Glc; X, α-D-Xyl-(1→6)- β-D-Glc; L, β-D-Gal-(1→2)-α-Xyl-(1rarr;6)β-Glc; and F, α-L-Fuc-(1→2)-β-D-Gal-(1→2)-α-D-Xyl-(1→6)-β-D-Glc] in an approximate molar ratio of 44: 1: 3 : 25: 1: 26.
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  • Masakuni Tako
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 49-53
    Published: March 31, 2000
    Released: February 23, 2011
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    The author and colleagues have proposed a gelation mechanism for K -carrageenan, c -car-rageenan, agarose (agar), gellan gum, curdlan, amylose, and alginic acid at the molecular level in aqueous solutions in preceding papers. The synergistic gelation mechanism between xanthan gum and galactomannans (locust-bean, tara-bean and guar gum), and konjac glucomannan, where trisac-charide side-chains of the former molecule take part in the interaction, have been proposed. The synergistic gelation mechanism between K -carrageenan and galactomannan (locust-bean gum) has also been proposed. Recently, we have proposed gelatinization and retrogradation mechanisms of rice starch. The polysaccharides in water changed into an ice-like structure with hydrogen bonding between polymer and water molecules, and between water molecules even at a concentration range of 0.1-1.0% (w/v) at room temperature, resulting in gelation. Such dramatic changes from liquid into gels have not yet generally been understood at the molecular level. The research conducted by the author now makes it possible to discuss, in principle, because structure-function relationships from the viewpoint of rheology not only of the gelling polysaccharides mentioned above, but also of non-gelling welan, rhamsan, S-657 gum, schizophyllan, and amylopectins (rice and potato), the structure of which is similar to that of gelling gellan gum, curdlan and amylose, have also been analyzed at the molecular level in our preceding papers.
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  • Takashi Kimura, Mitue Utida, Hirosi Nakajima, Munehiko Dombou
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 55-59
    Published: March 31, 2000
    Released: February 23, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Phenethyl alcohol was galactosylated by the β-galactosidase of Escherichia coli using lactose as the galactosyl donor. When 4 kg of phenethyl alcohol and 60 kg lactose in 10 mM potassium phos-phate buffer (pH 7.0) were incubated for 3 h at 40°C in the presence of 10 U/mL β -galactosidase, 2.8 kg of phenethylgalactoside was obtained in a 30.2% yield based on the phenethyl alcohol added. This product was water-soluble and had no perfume. It was identified as phenethyl β-D-galactopyranoside (PEGaI) by hydrolysis with α/β-galactosidase, FAB-mass and 1H-, 13C-NMR spectroscopies, respectively. PEGaI increased the floral aroma in rose flowers more strongly than phenethyl α -D-glucopyranoside (PEGIc).
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  • Hiroyuki Mizukami, Yasuhito Takeda
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 61-65
    Published: March 31, 2000
    Released: June 28, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We measured the chewing properties of cooked rice from six new characteristic rice cultivars, Saikai 194, Saikai 198, Hokuriku 149, Suigen 258, Hoshiyutaka and Saikai 184, using a rheometer and analyzed their relation to the starch molecular structures reported previously (Mizukami et al., Oyo Toshitsu Kagaku, 43, 15-23 (1996)). The cultivars revealed different chewing properties: the hardness, adhesiveness and stickiness were 590-940 g, 440-5700 erg and 55-200 g, respectively. Hoshiyutaka and Saikai 184 were hard, less adhesive and sticky, whereas Hokuriku 149 was soft and Saikai 194 was strongly adhesive and sticky. These chewing properties were compared with the amylose content and molecular structures of amylose and amylopectin, and a correlation to the molecular structure of amylopectin was found; that is, hard cooked rice and less-sticky and adhe-sive cooked rice had large amounts of very-long chains in the amylopectin molecules. The very-long chains might restrain the collapse of starch granules by crosslinking amylopectin molecules because starch with a low breakdown had a large amount of the very-long chains, and thus may be one of the causes of the hardness of the cooked rice.
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  • Kazunori Takamine, Jun-ichi Abe, Amane Iwaya, Syunsaku Maseda, Susumu ...
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 67-72
    Published: March 31, 2000
    Released: July 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A new manufacturing process for dietary fiber was developed using sweetpotato starch residue. The process consists of milling and sieving, and has been simplified compared to manufacturing processes that use citric acid fermented residue or enzymatic methods. The water-and oil-holding capacities of the dietary fiber made by the process were superior or comparable to some commer-cial dietary fibers. The index of whiteness of the dietary fiber was better than beet and corn fibers. It had a slightly offensive odor.
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  • Hirotake Fukino
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 73-85
    Published: March 31, 2000
    Released: June 28, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Corrugated cardboard was developed about 100 years ago. Jordan V. Bauers of the Stain Hall Company, developed a starch adhesive of high concentration (starch solids 18-25%) and low vis-cosity (150-250 cps) in 1940, and since then high-speed mass-production of corrugated cardboard has been possible. The largest corrugater in the world currently is 350 m/min, and 3000 mm in the paper width. As for the starch adhesive for corrugated cardboard manufacturing, three kinds [Stain Hall System (two-tank system, one-tank system), Premix System (one-tank system), and No Carrier System (one-tank system)] are used. In this text, the principle of bonding corrugated cardboard and an outline of the corrugated cardboard manufacturing method are first described, and the manufac-turing methods, features, etc. of each adhesive are explained afterwards. In addition, problems, etc. which occur when corrugated cardboard is manufactured using these adhesives are described, and actual countermeasure are explained.
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  • Sumio Kitahata
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 87-97
    Published: March 31, 2000
    Released: July 01, 2011
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    This paper is composed of the following four research topics, with research carried out at the Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute. Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases (CGTases) from Bacillus megaterium, B. circulans, B. macerans and B. stearothermophilus were purified and their catalytic properties were studied. CGTase catalyzed the conversion of α-1, 4-glucans such as starch and glycogen to cyclodextrin (CD) by intramolecular transglycosylation. In the presence of a suitable acceptor such as glucose, CGTase catalyzed the intermolecular transglycosylation, in which the non-reducing end glycosyl residues produced by splitting an α-1, 4-glucan were transferred to the acceptor. In the intramolecular transglycosylation, the enzymes from B. megaterium, B. circulans, B. macerans and B. stearothermophilus produced α-, β- and γ-CDs in ratios of 1.0: 6.3: 1.3, 1.0: 6.4: 1.4, 5.7: 1.0: 0.4 and 1.7: 1.0: 0.3, respectively, on 1 % soluble starch at the initial reaction. B. stearothermophilus CGTase showed the strongest activity in the intermolecular transglycosylation. The effective acceptors of CGTases in the intermolecular transglycosylation were D-glucose, D-xylose, 6-deoxy-D-glucose and L-sorbose, which had a pyranose structure with free equatorial hydroxyl groups at C2, C3 and C4. CGTases transferred glycosyl residues preferentially to the C4-hydroxyl group of D-glucose, D-xylose, and 6-deoxy-D-glucose with the exception of L-sorbose, where the preferred group was the C3-hydroxyl group. The enzyme also catalyzed the hydrolysis of α-1, 4-glucans and CDs. The ratios of hydrolysis to total catalysis were 1.9, 2.0, 2.0 and 8.3 for the CGTases from B. megaterium, B. circulans, B. macerans and B. stearothermophilus, respectively. Using the intermolecular transglycosylation of CGTase, maltooligosyl-sucrose (“coupling sugar, ” commercial name) is produced from the mixture of starch hydrolyzates and sucrose. The cariogenicity of the coupling sugar was studied by a group of the Department of Dental Research, Japanese National Institute of Health, and other universities, and the coupling sugar was proved to be an anticariogenic sweetener. It was the first example of a so-called “functional oligosaccharide” which had a physiological property apart from the conventional functions of sweeteners. Arthrobacter sp. K-1 β-fructofuranosidase (β-FFase), isolated from soil, had very strong transfer activity and broad acceptor specificity. When the β-FFase was incubated with sucrose in the presence of xylose, isomaltose and lactose, the enzyme transferred the fructosyl residue only to the C 1 hydroxyl group of the acceptors and efficiently produced fructosylxyloside (XF), isomaltosylfructoside (IMF) and lactosylfructoside (LacF), respectively. XF competitively inhibited the degradation activity of sucrose by glucosyltransferase (GTase) from Streptococcus mutans as an analogue to sucrose, and IMF acted as an alternative acceptor for the glucosyl transfer reaction of GTase to lessen the formation of insoluble glucan. These saccharides had anticariogenic properties. LacF was nondigestive, but selectively utilized by bifidobacteria in the human intestinal bacteria flora, followed by the improvement of constipation and blood lipid levels of hyperlipemia patients and suppression of putrefactive metabolites such as ammonia, phenol and indole. Stevioside, a sweet steviol glycoside isolated from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, is about 140-fold as sweet as sucrose, but has a slightly bitter taste and aftertaste. To improve the quality of taste, various stevioside derivatives such as glycosyl-stevioside (G-Ste), fructosyl-stevioside (F-Ste) and galactosyl-stevioside were synthesized with the transfer reaction of CGTase, β-FFase and β-galactosidase.
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  • Hiroshi Fujimoto
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 99-104
    Published: March 31, 2000
    Released: July 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    I have studied the enzymatic syntheses of oligosaccharides composing the sugar chains of glycoconjugates using glycosidases by two types of reactions: reverse hydrolysis and transglycosylation. In the reverse hydrolysis reaction, oligosaccharides having a variety of linkages were obtained by a batch method. On the other hand, it has been clarified that glycosidase having a different substrate specificity and from a different origin gives a different oligosaccharide with respective regioselectivity by the column method. In the transglycosylation reaction, the oligosaccharide was synthesized regioselectively according to the substrate specificity of the glycosidase used.
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  • Kazumi Funane
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 105-115
    Published: March 31, 2000
    Released: July 01, 2011
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    Purified dextransucrase (EC 2.4.1.5) was obtained from a Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-5 12F culture supernatant by affinity chromatography with DEAE-Sephadex A-50 followed by Sepharose 6B gel filtration with a yield of about 25%. Chemical modifications with 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl] carbodiimide (EDC), dietylpyrocarbonate (DEP), and o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) were done, respectively, on the purified dextransucrase. All three substances inactivated dextransucrase. Addition of the substrates sucrose and dextran retarded the enzyme inactivation by EDC and OPA but not by DEP. Differential labeling of dextransucrase by EDC was conducted in the presence of a sucrose analog, sucrose monocaprate. The fluorescent probe N-(1-naphtyl)ethyle-nediamine (EDAN) was used as the nucleophile. A fluorescent-labeled peptide was isolated from a trypsin digest of the EDC-EDAN modified enzyme. The isolated peptide was located at 30-45 amino acids toward the amino terminal from the catalytic aspartic acid and seemed to contain the second essential carboxyl group for the catalytic activity. Differential modification of dextransu-crase by OPA was conducted in the presence of sucrose, dextran, or sucrose-monocaprate. Modi-fied enzymes were digested by trypsin. The resultant peptides containing lysine residues protected by the ligands were homologous to the catalytic domain of dextransucrases and streptococcal glu-cosyltransferases (GTFs), but these regions were separate from the catalytic aspartic acid and the second essential carboxyl group. Four glucan-binding peptides of dextransucrase were obtained by mild trypsin digestion using mutan as the glucan in the presence of ammonium sulfate. Three pep-tides were located in the catalytic domain. One of them was identical with the dextran-binding pep-tide that contains lysine, which was isolated by differential chemical modification with OPA. Addi-tionally, there was a peptide similar in sequence to the glucan-binding A-repeat of dextransucrases and GTFs. A gene, dsrT, encoding a dextransucrase-like protein was isolated from the genomic DNA libraries of L. mesenteroides NRRL B-S 12F. The gene was similar to the intact open reading frames of the dextransucrase gene dsrS of L. mesenteroides NRRL B-S 12F, but was truncated after the catalytic domain, apparently by the deletion of five nucleotides. The dsrT gene product ex-pressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) did not produce dextran. The insertion of five nucleotides at the pu-tative deletion point in dsrT added glucan-binding domain to the enzyme and its dextransucrase ac-tivity was restored. The glucan produced by five-nucleotide-inserted dsrT (dsrT5) was mainly water insoluble and contained about 40% of 1, 3-linkages by methylation analysis. L. mesenteroides NRRL B-512F dextran is water soluble and contains about 95% a -1, 6-linkages. The presence of the dsrT gene suggests that this strain originally produced the different structure of dextran.
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  • Takafumi Kasumi, Takashi Sasaki, Arihiro Taki, Kunio Nakayama, Tsunero ...
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 117-124
    Published: March 31, 2000
    Released: June 28, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Erythritol, a tetra-carbon sugar alcohol (1, 2, 3, 4-butanetetrol, MW: 122.12) is distributed widely in nature. It is found in lichens, mushrooms, fruits, animal semen, lens, and some fermented foods such as wine, Japanese sake, or soy sauce as one of the microbial metabolites. This means that hu-mans have been consuming it unconsciously from ancient times. We tried to establish the mass-production of erythritol by fermentation in order to clarify chemical, physical, and physiological properties that were still unknown, and also to develop its utilization as a food material, as well as an ingredient for chemicals, pharmaceuticals and medicines. Microorganisms having the ability to produce polyols at high yield were screened and isolated from various natural sources by using cul-ture media containing a high glucose concentration. Among them, a few strains were selected as erythritol-producing microorganisms. Some undesirable properties of wild strain, especially insuffi-cient osmo-tolerance in media and vigorous foaming under aerobic culturing conditions were im-proved by UV irradiation and mutagen treatment. Using the mutant strains obtained, large-scale fer-mentation in a reactor tank was tested mainly from the view point of cost reduction. Satisfactory results were obtained in terms of erythritol yield, decrease of coloring materials and by-products, and also aeration conditions. As a consequence, we achieved a manufacturing technology for highly efficient production of erythritol from glucose as a substrate by fermentative process. Since the mass supply of erythritol became possible, its characteristics have been rapidly investigated and clarified. Erythritol is a fine crystal with a sweetness level 75-80% of sugar, heat-stable and less-hygroscopic. It is an extremely low calory sweetner, with an energy value estimated as 0.2 kcal/g. The FDA accepted the application of erythritol as a GRAS material in 1997, and also, the JECFA recognized it as the safest substance, ADI not specified, in 1999. Nikken Chemical Co., Ltd. (part-ner of this research project) launched the commercial production of erythritol and plans to intro-duce industrial uses in the future.
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  • Yoshiki Kurahashi, Zenichi Yoshino
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 125-132
    Published: March 31, 2000
    Released: June 28, 2010
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    Heat-Moisture-Treatment (HMT) was originated by V.L. Sair in 1944. It is a very interesting method to modify the structures and functions of starches. HMT is carried out by heating starch at 100-125°C under 100% relative humidity. Recently, much attention has been paid to HMT as a suitable method for modifying starch instead of chemical methods, from the viewpoint of health for uses for foods. However, it was not possible to produce commercially, because of difficulty in ob-taining a uniform product by partial gelatinization. We have solved this problem by introducing a new device suitable for both laboratory and industrial uses. The device consists of a combination of vacuum evacuation of a vessel containing starch and subsequent heating of the starch by introduc-ing live steam. This device provides a good uniform product in shorter time than conventional methods. We called it "reduced-pressurized heat-moisture treatment." Using this treatment (USP 5362329 (1994)), HMT has been recognized as one of the useful means of modifying starch, espe-cially for food uses. Heat-Moisture-Treated Starch (HMTS) swells but retains granular shape with-out dissolving by heating above 100°C in the presence of water. HMT increases the stability for acid and mechanical agitation in pasting. HMT increases hydrophiricity and decreases hydrophobic-ity of starch granules. On the contrary, HMT decreases hydrophiricity and increases hydrophobicity of starch paste. HMTS appears to be a suitable material for the production of retort foods, dress-ings, noodles, baked foods, batter products, confections, dairy products, creams, fat minetics and resistant starches.
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  • [in Japanese]
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 133-148
    Published: March 31, 2000
    Released: June 28, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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