Journal of Applied Glycoscience
Online ISSN : 1880-7291
Print ISSN : 1344-7882
ISSN-L : 1344-7882
Volume 53 , Issue 4
Showing 1-10 articles out of 10 articles from the selected issue
Regular Papers
  • Keitaro Suzuki, Sumiko Nakamura, Hikaru Satoh, Ken’ichi Ohtsubo
    2006 Volume 53 Issue 4 Pages 227-232
    Published: 2006
    Released: January 11, 2007
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Chain-length distributions of amylopectins by HPAEC-PAD from japonica and indica waxy-rice samples were characterized, and the relationship between the chain-length distributions and pasting properties of rice flour by RVA and the physical properties of cooked rice grains by Tensipresser were studied. In comparison with jaonica and indica types, the pattern of chain-length distribution of indica amylopectin typically differed, and the ratio of degree of polymerization (DP) 6-12, fa short chains of indica type was clearly lower, while the ratio of DP>13, fb1+2+3 long chains was clearly higher. The physical properties of cooked rice grains and powder pasting of the indica type showed clearly as hard type starch. There were differences in the chain-length distribution among japonica waxy-rice starches. The ratios of fb3, DP>37 for japonica waxy amylopectins were positively correlated with RVA paste viscosity parameters, such as minimum viscosity, final viscosity, pasting temperature and setback, and iodine absorbance. Iodine absorbance was negatively correlated with properties of cooked rice grains, such as overall adhered mass, L6. The results showed the possibility that the long chain portion of the amylopectin structure is a factor in regulating its starch physical properties.
    Download PDF (318K)
  • Takaharu Hashimoto, Mayumi Kurose, Kazuyuki Oku, Tomoyuki Nishimoto, H ...
    2006 Volume 53 Issue 4 Pages 233-239
    Published: 2006
    Released: January 11, 2007
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    We examined the digestibility of cyclic tetrasaccharide (CTS; cyclo{→6)-α-D-Glcp-(1→3)-α-D-Glcp-(1→6)-α-D-Glcp-(1→3)-α-D-Glcp-(1→}). CTS was resistant to two types of α-amylase and to artificial gastric juice. Enzymes in the rat small intestinal mucosa slightly hydrolyzed CTS. CTS was not utilized by 22 strains of human intestinal bacteria. CTS was not fermented by rat cecal content. In the single administration to rats, more than 90% of the administered CTS was recovered in the feces. From the above results, CTS was confirmed as an indigestible and unfermentable saccharide. As a result of 4 weeks’ feeding to rats, CTS was effective in the suppression of body fat accumulation and lowering of serum triglyceride of the rats. These effects of CTS depended on the amount of CTS in the diet.
    Download PDF (288K)
  • Keito Boki, Yoshihide Yamada, Manabu Kitakouji
    2006 Volume 53 Issue 4 Pages 241-247
    Published: 2006
    Released: January 11, 2007
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Various physicochemical properties were investigated to assess the potential of starches from the residual crude drugs after extraction. The powdered crude drugs (C) differed from each other in harvest time or district of cultivation. Starches (S) were prepared from tubers of Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Breitenbach (PT), rhizomes of Alisma orientale Juzepczuk (AO) and seeds of Coix lacryma-jobi Linné var. ma-yuen Stapf (CL). C-PTs, C-AOs and C-CLs contained 41.1-77.5, 12.5-40.5 and 1.5-5.8% starch, respectively. S-PT, S-AO and S-CL granules measured were 8.2±0.2-16.0±0.4, 6.1±0.2 and 11.5±0.4-13.5±0.4 μm, respectively, in average diameter. S-PTs, S-AOs and S-CLs were classified as CA-type. The amount of P in S-PTs, S-AOs and S-CLs was 62-330, 93-110 and 75-210 μg/g, respectively. That of Ca was 320-530, 48-260 and 18-33 μg/g, respectively. S-PT-1, S-AO-2 and S-CL-2 showed endothermic curves from 67.3 to 85.0, 58.9 to 84.2 and 59.2 to 81.0°C, their enthalpy being 3.4±0.3, 4.2±0.0 and 4.5±0.2 J/g, respectively. S-PT-1, S-AO-2 and S-CL-2 are expected to be available for starch gelatinized at low energy. The digestibility of raw S-PTs, S-AOs and S-CLs by α-amylase was 35.3±2.4, 38.3±2.3 and 62.2±5.2%, respectively, at 72 h. The main oligosaccharide products from the raw starches (digestibility: S-PT-1, 2.4% ; S-AO-2, 5.8% ; S-CL-2, 7.1%) digested by α-amylase were maltotriose (35.8-40.0%) and maltose (35.8-42.8%). The main product from the starches (digestibility: S-PT-1, 4.8% ; S-AO-2, 12.1% ; S-CL-2, 18.7%) digested by glucoamylase was glucose (97.6-99.5%). The digested S-PT-1, S-AO-2 and S-CL-2 granules (digestion time, 1 h) were roughly eroded by α-amylase all over the surface and the starches digested by glucoamylase maintained their original form with a few fine grains on their surface. A few granules of S-CL-2 digested by glucoamylase lost their original form. The S-PT-1(A), S-AO-2(A) and S-CL-2(A) digested by α-amylase are expected to be available as an adsorbent, because of their porosity. The results of gelatinization temperature and enthalpy suggest that the thermostability of S-PT-1, S-AO-2 and S-CL-2 digested by α-amylase was higher than that of the starches digested by glucoamylase.
    Download PDF (519K)
  • Fumihiko Sakai, Yoshihiro Ikeuchi, Tadasu Urashima, Michio Fujihara, K ...
    2006 Volume 53 Issue 4 Pages 249-254
    Published: 2006
    Released: January 11, 2007
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The learning behavior of adult rats was studied using a water-filled multiple T-maze apparatus and a Morris swimming-maze after feeding lactose, galactosyllactose (GL), N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), sialyllactose (SL) or galactosylated N-acetylneuraminic acid (GN) and a control diet. The learning behavior tended to improve in the groups fed SL or GN when compared with the other groups. The concentrations of gangliosides and GM3 in brain were significantly higher in the groups fed SL or GN. The data show that the feeding of SL or GN to adult rats raised the brain ganglioside and GM3 contents, which may be related to improvement in the swimming learning behavior.
    Download PDF (263K)
  • Wataru Hakamata, Emiko Yamamoto, Makoto Muroi, Masataka Mochizuki, Mas ...
    2006 Volume 53 Issue 4 Pages 255-260
    Published: 2006
    Released: January 11, 2007
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a mechanism by which cells undergo death to control cell proliferation or in response to DNA damage. The present study was designed to explore small molecule apoptosis inducers for antitumor agents. The synthesis of 4-sulfonylphenyl α-D-glucopyranoside derivatives 1-6 and 4-(sulfonylamino)phenyl α-D-glucopyranoside derivatives 7-12, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-targeted small molecules that were designed to induce apoptosis from ER stress by ER glucosidase inhibition and DNA damage is described. Compounds 6 and 12, with a terminal 2-naphthyl group, indicated inhibitions of α-glucosidases from S. cerevisiae (IC50=51.7 μM and IC50=74.1 μM) and B. stearothermophilus (IC50=60.1 μM and IC50=89.1 μM). Moreover, compound 12 strongly induced the DNA strand breakage condition. When compounds 1-12 were assayed for their ability to inhibit processing by glucosidases at the cellular level, no effects on glycoprotein processing were observed.
    Download PDF (308K)
  • Satoshi Makishima, Kouichi Nozaki, Masahiro Mizuno, Eiji Netsu, Kazuno ...
    2006 Volume 53 Issue 4 Pages 261-266
    Published: 2006
    Released: January 11, 2007
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Recovery of soluble sugars from waste medium for Enokitake mushroom cultivation was investigated using a hydrothermal reaction and enzyme treatment. The most suitable conditions for solubilization of hemicellulose fraction in the waste medium were found in the treatment with compressed hot water at 190°C, 1.8 MPa for 10 min. Under these conditions, a series of xylooligosaccharides from xylose to oligosaccharides with DP over 20 were detected in the soluble fraction. However, the yield of xylooligosaccharides decreased with an increase of the treatment temperature to over 190°C. The hydrothermal reaction at 190°C enhanced enzymatic digestibility and half of the residue was solubilized by cellulases, which was about eight times greater than enzymatic digestibility of non-treated medium. The combination of hydrothermal reaction and enzyme treatment made it possible to solubilize about 80% of waste medium, and about 20% of original waste medium remained, which was less than the sum of lignin and ash content.
    Download PDF (556K)
  • Yuuichi Ookushi, Masahiro Sakamoto, Jun-ichi Azuma
    2006 Volume 53 Issue 4 Pages 267-272
    Published: 2006
    Released: January 11, 2007
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Microwave irradiation in the presence of water was applied for extraction of polysaccharides from the fruiting body of Hericium erinaceum, a mushroom called Yamabushitake. In this study, the effects of microwave irradiation temperature and time on solubilization of polymers in H. erinaceum were investigated. The results indicated that the degree of solubilization of polymers proceeded with an increase in heating temperature up to 200°C, although the polymers solubilized gradually depolymerized with the increase in heating temperature. The results also suggested that lengthening irradiation time had effects on solubilization of polymers similar to the increase in heating temperature. Comparison of the results obtained by microwave-assisted extraction with those obtained by extraction using conventional external heating indicated that extractability of the former extraction for 5 min at 140°C was almost equivalent to that of the latter extraction for 6 h at 100°C. This result suggests that microwave irradiation has an advantage for extraction of polysaccharides from the fruiting body of mushrooms in terms of extraction time.
    Download PDF (548K)
Notes
  • Yogo Chiba, Takahiro Kuwashima
    2006 Volume 53 Issue 4 Pages 273-275
    Published: 2006
    Released: January 11, 2007
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    An alkali-stable β-amylase was purified from Nagaimo, a cultivar of yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.) by hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide treatment, ammonium sulfate fractionation, and two-step column chromatographic procedures on α-CD-Sepharose CL-4B and DEAE-Sephacel. Analysis by SDS-PAGE revealed the enzyme to be a monomeric protein with a 56 kDa molecular mass. This enzyme was stable for pH 4.0-12.0 at 4°C for 24 h. During two months, its activity remained about 40% at pH 9.5, but it fell below 20% at pH 5.0. Other properties such as optimum pH (5.6), and molecular mass resembled those of previously reported β-amylases. Thermal stability of this enzyme was not very high, either. From these results, this enzyme appears to be a good model for studying β-amylase stability.
    Download PDF (318K)
  • Hiromi Murakami, Takaaki Kiryu, Taro Kiso, Hirofumi Nakano
    2006 Volume 53 Issue 4 Pages 277-279
    Published: 2006
    Released: January 11, 2007
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Microbial oxidation of monosaccharides and calcium binding capability of the resulting aldonic acids were investigated. When washed cells of a strain of Burkholderia cepacia were shaken with 15% (w/v) D-galactose, D-mannose, D-xylose and L-arabinose in the presence of CaCO3, corresponding aldonates were produced with yields of 99.4, 93.6, 94.5 and 93.0%, respectively, after 2 d for D-galactose and 8 d for the others. Free aldonic acids of high purity were obtained from the reaction supernatants by the treatment with activated carbon followed by cation exchange resin. The aldonic acids showed lower sequestering capacities compared with EDTA and citrate, suggesting weak binding with a calcium ion. Such weak calcium binding and high aqueous solubility of the aldonates suggested their possible application not to builders of detergents, but to functional saccharides that promote intestinal absorption of minerals.
    Download PDF (224K)
Review
  • Hyesook S. Lim, Jung-Ah Han, James N. BeMiller, Seung-Taik Lim
    2006 Volume 53 Issue 4 Pages 281-286
    Published: 2006
    Released: January 11, 2007
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    As an alternative process to the chemical modifications commonly practiced for food starches, dry heating of a starch with a presence of ionic gums such as sodium alginate, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), and xanthan was investigated. Waxy maize starch was dispersed in a dilute gum solutions (1% gum based on starch solids, 36% starch in the solution). The dispersion was dried (45°C overnight) to moisture contents less than 10%, and then heated (130°C for 2 h) in a convection oven. Paste viscosity and crystal melting of the heat-treated starch powders were measured using a Rapid Viscoanalyzer (RVA) and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), respectively. Under RVA viscograms, xanthan behaved like a cross-linking agent reducing the peak viscosity but increasing the shear stability, whereas CMC and alginate raised the peak and final viscosities as the chemicals for starch substitution did. The overall changes in the paste viscosity were most significant when xanthan was added. The pH of the starch-gum dispersion affected the paste viscosity of the heat-treated starches. A mild acidity (pH 6) was favored for the viscosity changes when sodium alginate was added, whereas a mild alkalinity (pH 8) enhanced the viscosity increase when xanthan was used. By using gum mixtures such as xanthan-CMC and xanthan-alginate, the increases both in final viscosity and in shear stability could be achieved as the effect similar to the dual chemical modifications (substitution and cross-linking). But the dry heating with ionic gums did not provide substantial changes in the melting of the starches (DSC), indicating that the crystalline regions in starch remain relatively inert to the dry heating process. The interactions between starch and gum molecules induced by the heating responsible for the viscosity changes might occur only in the amorphous regions.
    Download PDF (187K)
feedback
Top