We prepared and characterized amylose nanogels containing ionic polysaccharides which we used were 4-O-methyl-D-glucurono-D-xylan (GX), alginate, xanthan, and chitosan. Gelation under a shear force followed by a wet pulverization leads to the formation of hybrid nanogels. The resultant nanogels were characterized by particle size analysis, zeta-potential measurement and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Wet pulverization under a pressure of 200 MPa reduced the particle size of the gels from 20−26 μm to 240−670 nm. Zeta potential measurement showed that the ionic polysaccharides increased surface charges of the amylose gels. AFM observations showed the network consisting of submicron size amylose-polysaccharide nano fibrils. The fibrils containing GX were dispersed uniformly, while those containing only amylose were partly aggregated.
Lactulose, a disaccharide widely used in pharmaceuticals and functional foods, is produced by lactose isomerization. Lactose and lactulose have an aldose–ketose relationship. Less than 25 % conversion of lactose into lactulose is achieved using the Lobry de Bruyn–Alberda van Ekenstein transformation with heating, whereas the conversion is increased to 80 % by the addition of an approximately equimolar concentration of the organogermanium compound 3-(trihydroxygermyl)propanoic acid (THGP) to the reaction mixture. To further understand this phenomenon, in this study, we analyzed the affinity between THGP and sugar isomers using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. For the dimethyl derivative of THGP with lactose and lactulose, the complex formation ratios at 0.1 M (1:1 mixing ratio) were 14 and 59 %, respectively, with complex formation constants of 1.8 and 43 M–1, respectively. The complex formation capacity was approximately 24-fold higher for lactulose than for lactose. Moreover, THGP is considered to protect lactulose from alkaline degradation, resulting in high production yield of lactulose. Therefore, we concluded that high affinity for the isomerization product may promote isomerization and that promotion of sugar isomerization using an organogermanium compound is an effective method for converting lactose to lactulose.
We report production of the functional disaccharide gentiobiose β-D-Glcp-(1→6)-D-Glc by a hydrolysis reaction of hydrothermally treated Aureobasidium pullulans β-1,3-1,6-glucan as the substrate and Kitalase as the enzyme. Gentiobiose was produced over the pH range 4−6 and the concentration of gentiobiose produced decreased above pH 7. The maximum value of gentiobiose production was unaffected by the enzyme concentration. The maximum concentration of gentiobiose produced was dependent on the substrate concentration whereas the maximum ratio of gentiobiose to glucose was not. The production of gentiobiose from yeast β-1,3-1,6-glucan was lower than that from A. pullulans β-1,3-1,6-glucan.
Chitinases belonging to the GH19 family have diverse loop structure arrangements. A GH19 chitinase from rye seeds (RSC-c) has a full set of (six) loop structures that form an extended binding cleft from -4 to +4 (“loopful”), while that from moss (BcChi-A) lacks several loops and forms a shortened binding cleft from -2 to +2 (“loopless”). We herein inserted a loop involved in sugar residue binding at subsites +3 and +4 of RSC-c (Loop-II) into BcChi-A (BcChi-A+L-II), and the thermal stability and enzymatic activity of BcChi-A+L-II were then characterized and compared with those of BcChi-A. The transition temperature of thermal unfolding decreased from 77.2 ˚C (BcChi-A) to 63.3 ˚C (BcChi-A+L-II) by insertion of Loop-II. Enzymatic activities toward the chitin tetramer (GlcNAc)4 and the polymeric substrate glycol chitin were also suppressed by the Loop-II insertion to 12 and 9 %, respectively. The Loop-II inserted into BcChi-A was found to be markedly flexible and disadvantageous for protein stability and enzymatic activity.
A glycopolymer bearing α2,3-linked sialyltrisaccharides was synthesized by living radical polymerization using a glycomonomer prepared by a protecting-group-free process, direct azidation of the free sialyllactose, and subsequent azide-alkyne cycloaddition. The prepared glycopolymer with pendant 3´-sialyllactose moieties strongly interacted with both avian and human influenza viruses analyzed by the hemagglutination inhibition assay and the quartz crystal microbalance method.