Sources of self-esteem (SSS) among Japanese university students were investigated and a scale to assess contingency and contentment of SSS was developed. Japanese university students (N=923) participated in a questionnaire survey. In Study 1, which consisted of a free-description survey, 17 sources of self-esteem were identified and arranged into a trilaminar hierarchy. Then, the SSS Scale designed to assesses contingency and contentment was developed. The reliability of the scale was examined using its internal consistency and test-retest correlation. In Study 2, the construct validity of the SSS scale was demonstrated by its correlations with the Big Five Scale, Self-Consciousness Scale, and Time Perspective Scale. Possible applications of the SSS scale in research and clinical practice are discussed.
A hypothetical model is presented for improving and enhancing the mental health of university students through reciprocity of social support, which is affected by social skills. University students (96 men and 167 women) participated in the study. They completed Kikuchi's Social Skill Scale (Kikuchi, 1988), the 9-items for assessing the reciprocity of perceived support (Fukuoka, 1997), and the Diagnostic Inventory for Mental Health Pattern (Hashimoto & Tokunaga, 1999). Results indicated that the levels of social skills were negatively correlated with the reciprocity of perceived support, suggesting that the reciprocity of perceived support was well balanced among students with high social skills. Nonlinear regression analysis revealed that students' stress levels were lower and that their quality of life was higher, when there was a well balanced reciprocity of perceived support. A theoretical and hypothetical model was developed using structural equation modeling. It is suggested that this model would be useful for developing an effective approach to the improvement and enhancement of mental health in university students.
Factors determining the sense of self-growth and burnout among hospital nurses, and its differences resulting from the number of years of nursing experience were investigated. Nurses working in a general hospital (N=284) completed the following questionnaires: Posttraumatic Growth Inventory to assess the sense of self-growth; the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory to assess burnout; the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire to assess stressors and social support; the 15-item Hardiness Scale to assess personality characteristics; the Emotional Labor Inventory for Nurses to assess job characteristics of nurse and the worker's stress scale to assess the degree of total experienced stress from life events. An analysis of variance revealed that nurses working for more than 11 years had a high level of the sense of self-growth and a low level of client-related burnout. Multiple regression analysis indicated that factors determining the sense of self-growth and burnout were different according to the number of years of the nursing career. These results suggest that in order to prevent burnout and facilitate psychological growth, it is necessary to develop support programs suited for different levels of nursing experience.
Interest in meaning making following stressful life experiences has continued to increase. However, there are to date, no instruments to assess the process of meaning making. Therefore, the Assimilation and Accommodation of Meaning Making Scale (AAMS) was developed to measure the orientation and strategy of assimilation and accommodation during the meaning making process. Moreover, the reliability and validity of the scale were investigated. Undergraduate students (N=726) participated in the study. Explorative factor analysis of their responses to the newly developed AAMS revealed two factors. Moreover, the scale was internally consistent. Examining the relationship between the AAMS and other scales verified the concurrent and construct validity of the AAMS. These results suggested that the AAMS has sufficient reliability and validity. The limitations of the study and possible uses of the scale are discussed.
In Japan, improving the quality of life (QOL) by acquiring healthy behaviors is emphasized as one aspect of lifelong health care. Interventions aimed at acquiring healthy behavior are designated as “Health Communications” (HC) and their effectiveness has often been reported in the literature. In this study, Formative Research (FR) was conducted on adapting information for community residents based on the community approach. A leaflet designed to improve physical activities and diet habits was distributed to residents of a community (N=3000; Age range 20–70 years). The content of the leaflets were compiled based on the results of FR and small change strategy. Responses of participants to the pre-intervention and post-intervention questionnaires (n=558) were analyzed. Missing values were excluded from the analysis. The assessment of participants' behaviors two months after distributing the leaflets indicated improvements in physical activities (9.9%), lifestyle related physical activities (9.1%), and diet (10.9%). Significant improvements were also found in health-related QOL, as indicated by the physical summary, physical function, physical role, social function, and emotional role components. Additionally, free descriptions of the participants revealed that the leaflets had affected their health awareness. These findings indicated that people in the study community had acquired healthy behaviors and improved their health-related QOL. It is suggested future studies should be undertaken to improve health communications.