The purpose of this study was to develop a scale measuring mothers' level of happiness in the daily events of child rearing and to investigate the effect of maternal optimism on their happiness in child rearing. Six hundred seventy-six mothers with toddlers (age one through preschool) completed a questionnaire containing scales on optimism, child-rearing happiness in daily events, happiness regarding child care, and feelings about child rearing. The main results were as follows: (1) factor analysis revealed that the “child-rearing happiness in daily events” scale consists of two factors, called “care giving” and “interacting with toddlers” and (2) regression analysis revealed that optimism is related to increased child-rearing happiness in daily events, happiness in child care, and positive feelings about child-rearing. Also, optimism decreases negative feelings about child-rearing. These results indicated that the “child-rearing happiness in daily events” scale can measure the degree of happiness felt by mothers in daily child rearing.
A new scale for measuring components of mindfulness was developed and its reliability and validity were evaluated. Undergraduate and graduate students (N=478) participated by responding to a 72-item pilot scale. Their responses were psychometrically evaluated by conducting exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The resulting 31-item measure was named the Six Factors Mindfulness Scale (SFMS), which included the following subscales: Nonduality, Describing, Acceptance and Nonreactivity, Objective observing, Awareness, and Being in the moment. The SFMS had good internal consistency and sufficient, 2-week test–retest reliability. Nearly all subscales of SFMS were adequately correlated with several theoretically related scales. We also examined relationships between mental health scores and SFMS factor scores. Results indicated that high awareness with low acceptance resulted in poor mental health, which supported the findings of previous research, and suggested the validity of the scale. It is concluded that the SFMS is a useful, multidimensional measure for assessing mindfulness.
This study examined the effectiveness of internet-delivered interventions—comprising recording of daily steps, a daily steps graph, goal setting, integration with a social networking service, personalized reminders urging physical activity, team and individual ranking, and a questionnaire—for promoting physical activity. Participants in the intervention group were 253 workers in five industrial sectors: manufacturing (94); transportation and postal activities (32); education and learning support (38); medical, healthcare, and welfare (63); and services not classified elsewhere (NCE) (26). Analysis of variance was used to test for significant differences in daily step count and exercise self-efficacy according to industrial sector (5 aforementioned groups and a control group) and time (pre/post-intervention). Although the NCE services group had a significantly higher daily step count post-intervention, self-efficacy was not significantly changed in any group. The NCE services group was assumed to use a computer as part of their daily work. This possibly indicates that for the effective use of this intervention, which relies on information and communications technology (ICT), participants must possess media literacy and work in a substantially ICT-focused environment. This study suggests it is necessary to enrich the contents of internet-delivered interventions and simultaneously enhance participants' ability to use personal computers in order to successfully promote physical activity.