Reconstructions of hydrometeorological changes and human impacts using subsurface environmental data have been reviewed. Surface temperature changes estimated from subsurface temperature have been used globally and locally for climate reconstructions. Human impacts of contaminations can be revealed from the data preserved in the subsurface environments. International research framework on reconstructions of hydrometeorological changes may help us to understand the global hydrometeorological problems and human impacts on the earth.
The use of environmental isotopes reveals the wide range of subsurface water flow age around the world including the stagnant groundwater system. Because the groundwater recharge process is within the framework of regional hydrological cycle, the groundwater aquifer must have the local hydro-meteorological information including air temperature, precipitation amount, air mass source of precipitation, etc.
The new type of hydrological research field called paleo-hydrology has been rising after 1990’s to estimate the passed hydro-meteorological condition by using subsurface water including groundwater. In this report, the author will introduce some original paleo-hydrological study examples applied for different time and space scale.
The Japanese nation is urged to know the land condition of their own domicile after the revision of several laws concerning natural hazards. Governments have the obligation to prepare hazard maps, however, the production of the map is hard to overtake the needs. The inquiry through the internet reveals that there are many spatial information which can be used to interpret the land condition. A WebMapServer is launched by using freeware software and available spatial information. The system is used not only to present maps relating land condition but also propagate the outcome of the science such as Geography and Hydrology.
A preliminary study is conducted to propose countermeasures for areas endowed with cultural heritage as well as for residential area against flood and sediment hazards, focusing on part of Kyoto. Disaster records during the latest fifty years show that water-induced disasters may take place when accumulated rainfall depth is over around 100mm, resulting in deaths and missings whenever a continuous rainfall is over around 120 mm. Relations between numbers of death and fully damaged houses are characterized by two envelop lines, in which the upper is closely related to sediment disasters and the lower is characterized by flood disasters. A critical line for sediment hazards zone predicted in terms of mass point system for soil block’s dynamics suggests that occurrences of sediment disaster are inevitable in present residential regions and in addition several cultural architectures are located in sediment hazards zone.
The research on restoration of the past environment is called for by hydrology as well as other learning fields. Then, the restoration methods of the past hydrological environment were considered for flood in River Kamo at Kyoto as an example. First, it arranged in three types (Restoration from earth surface, Restoration from geological structure and Restoration from historical records) about the restoration methods of the flood. The outline was described about each restoration methods. About the flood of River Kamo, two examples in the Heian period and the Edo period were taken up, and the above-mentioned restoration methods were applied. When using the restoration methods of three types together, it was made to become clear with any example that the past hydrological environment could be restored certainly.
In this study, it report on the restoration of historical water environment in historical materials and maps and a geographical approach to hydrological environment discusses a possibility of an analysis method in the analog type. I have focuses on the descriptions and landscape in this research. Written words and photograph on landscape can give high quality information on a decrease in groundwater level, a change of spring points, a form of well, water use and land use. As a result, this method for the reconstruction water environment in the past can afford good result. The summary and the problem of this method are shown as follows.
(1)The description sentences in historical materials can be found for more than 1000 years, but this method is suitable for the last 100 years after.
(2) Changes of hydrological environment in literary works and landscape applied level from 100 to 101.
(3) For the restoration of historical water environment in literary works and landscape, it needs a cultural and social science approach to this research.
(4) Although it is unsuitable to study for wide area, this method can be applied to the narrow region or points.
(5) It is difficult to obtained historical materials and maps in detail, and many times are required.
This method remains some problems. However, I want to expect the approach in an analog type research to the analysis method in the hydrology.