Legal History Review
Online ISSN : 1883-5562
Print ISSN : 0441-2508
ISSN-L : 0441-2508
Volume 1964 , Issue 14
Showing 1-49 articles out of 49 articles from the selected issue
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 1-2
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (53K)
  • Rizo Takeuchi
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 3-7,1
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In Japan, about the end of the ancient age, i. e. the 10 th century, there arised the remarkable change in relation to the landownership, which might be recognized as the feudal landownership in the middle ages. This fact has been pointed by many scholars. In this article, however, this author, as a result of examining the documents of the 10th century care-fully, has discovered the words " Ryoshu " (_??__??_) and "Shoryo" (_??__??_). The word "Ryo"(_??_) could also be found in the documents of the 8 th century, but its meaning was only " managing ", or " commanding " and never did it indicate exactly " landownership ". Since about the 10 th century, this word had changed its meaning into the landownership which displayed the right to the exclusive cultivation. At first, this right was not permitted officially. But in the 11 th century, it was permitted so. Herewith, the landownership in Japan was to be separated into two elements, that is to say, " Ryoshu " (_??__??_) who possessed the exclusive right to control the lands and " Sakunin " (_??__??_)who rented the lands. Although the former was guaranteed officially, the latter was not.
    Download PDF (253K)
  • Shiro Ishii
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 8-30,1
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Der Begriff des marxistischen "feudalen Grundeigentums" hat bisher die Entwicklung des geschichtlichen Studiums zur japanischen Fruhneuzeit geleitet. Aber in der letzten Zeit macht man auf dessen methodologischen Fehler ungeachtet Anhäufung der zahlreichen "positiven" Arbeiten aufmerksam. So, ich denke, es ist unentbehrlich, die prinzipielle Kritik am Begriff zu üben.
    Die Formel des Marx vom Feudalismus ist, daß (1) die Feudalherren den Grund zu eigen haben, (2) den die selbstwirtschaftenden Bauern besitzen, (3) daher notwendig es sich um den außerökonomischen Zwang handelt. In dieser Aussage aber sind (1) and (2) unter keinem empirisch-wissenschaftlichen Beweis gestellt. Es möchte eine Folge vom Grundgedan-ken des historischen Materialismus sein, daß besonders (1) ohne Beweis-führung vorausgesetzt bleibt. Und das Dilemma zwischen dieser Vorausse-tzung und der geschichtlichen Tatsache, Besitz der selbstwirtschaftenden Bauern, hat Marx in die Klemme gebracht, den Begriff, "nominelles Eig-entum" des Herrn, zu bilden, der im logischen Gegensatz zu seiner Definition des Grundeigentums (ausschleßliche Monopol des Grundes).
    Dieser Fehler ist eine Folge von der ungerechten Verallgemeinerung des neuzeitlichen Eigentumsbegrifs and des Zeitgedankens, der die Herrschaft als (für) "Ausfluß des Grundeigentums" angesehen hat, indem er die Adel unter dem Absolutismus für die mittelalterlichen Adel versehen hat.
    M. Araki, ein typischer marxistischer Historiker, sagt, daß (1) in der Frühneuzeit es die selbstständigen Bauern gegeben hat, (2) den die Herren "das Ganze der Mehrarbeit" durch den ausserökonomischen Zwang abgepr-esst haben, (3) daher die frühneuzeitlichen Herren die "feudalen Grundei-gentümer" sind, and die Frühhneuzeit die Feudalzeit ist. Wir müssen darauf hinweisen, daß die Logik dieser Aussage Arakis zu der oben erwähnten Logik des Marx umgekehrt ist. (1) von Marx entspricht (3) von Araki, and (3) von Marx entspricht (2) von Araki. Daher nimmt Arakis Aussage die Form der Definition des "feudalen Grundeigentums" an, wo die Definition des außerökonomischen Zwangs and dessen Existenz in der Frühneuzeit noting sind. Aber sie befinden sich in Arakis Darstellung nicht, in der der auBerökonomische Zwang a priori vorausgesetzt ist. So aus Arakis Logik folgt der Schiuß, daß alle Gesellschaften, wo es die selbstständigen Bauern gibt, ühberhaupt "feudal" sind. Um these Schwäche auszugleichen, ist die Abpressung des Ganzen der Mehrarbeit betont and das Determinationswort "klein" dem Begriff des "selbstständigen Bauers" hinzugefügt. Allein es ist natürlich kein Merkmal für den Feudalismus auch in der marxistischen Theorie, ob das Ganze der Mehrarbeit abgepresst ist oder nicht. Und in Arakis Darstellung ist es erklärt nicht, warum der feudale Bauer "klein" soll. Noch dazu ist "selbstständiger Bauer" Arakis verschieden von dem "selbstwirtschaftenden Bauern" Marxens in einigen Punkten.
    So ist mein, Schiuß daß um die gegenseitige Beziehung zwischen der Gewaltund dem Grundeigentum zu studieren, der Begriff des " feudalen Grundei gentums " ungeeignet ist, and ein newer Begriff, der anders als der neuzeitliche Begriff ist, gebildet werden muß.
    Download PDF (1144K)
  • Kaisaku Kumagai
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 31-48,3
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The Tokugawa Shogunate prohibited farmers from selling of farms. But there were many facts of sale under guarantee of village headman. The Tokugawa Shogunate imposed land-taxes on villages, so if the village was able to pay the land-taxes as one body, a substitution of landowner (that is sale of farm) was permitted. But in that case the guarantee of village headman was indispensable. And such institutions were carried over to the Meiji Restoration.
    The government of the Meiji Restoration declared the freedom of sale of land, and land was put in circulation. The institution of Chiken (_??__??_-public document of landownership, 1872) certified it, but a sign and seal of village headman was required to that document.
    But the village system and the guarantee of village headman became an obstruction to a wide-spread circulation. Then a new institution was established by the Department of Justice. It was called Tokisho (_??__??__??_-the registry). The act of registry was promulgated in 1886.
    This registry was more disreputable than the village office. The village office was more familiar with villagers. But the business of registry was removed to the new registry office by public power. That was pushed on by new landowners who desired that the activities of their village would go beyond the boundory of the village.
    Download PDF (779K)
  • On Ikeda
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 49-71,4
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The equal land system from the 5 th to the 8 th century, through which the government authority alloted field of standard dimensions to each peasantry to support his livelihood and to pay zu-yung-diao tax and corvée to the state, is one of the most remarkable land policies in Chinese history. In this paper the author intends to clarify the aim and significance of the system, especially in Tang period when the system entered the complete and decline stage.
    After various reforms and adjustments to the actual conditions through the Northern and Sui dynasties, the system in early Tang period has fundamentally conserved the fixed prescriptions in the statute over 150 years. Comparing carefully the statutes-Wade 624 A.D., Kaiynen the former 719, Kaiyuan the later 737, & Japanese Yoro 718 which considerably copied Tang statutes-we are convinced that there is not any basic revision in the articles, thoughg one can easily notice several apparent differences of minor importance. The equal land system had at its start a notable characteristic that encouraged the agricultural production, and then inTang period it ruled principally the land tenure in proportion to the postion of social status. Thus the system in the period may be evaluated rather as an ideal institution which was adjusted to the ruling idea of the governing class.
    There was an opinion that regarded equal land system as a fictitious law, and it was completely refuted by Dr. NIIDA and others on the basis of historical proofs. Recently, the detailed studies on the first-hand documents found at Turf an in Xinjiang-especially Dr. NISHIJIMA'S treatise in Monumenta Serindica vol. II, 1959-explain the real situation under the system in the 8 th century. There (Xizhou in Tang), under the semimilitary colonial rule of Tang, rigid land allotment was performed according to the juntian form. But in spite of the use of terms such as yingshoutian, yongyetian, the actual state of them are far from the juntien rule in statutes.
    We can find here an inconsistency between the actual land policy and the establ-ished form. Accordingly we must deliberate the socio-economic functions of the system in its real enforcement on one hand, and on the other hand appreciate the universal form which penetrated to all the corners of Tang Empire.
    Download PDF (1162K)
  • Noboru Niida
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 72-94,5
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this article lies in discerning the relations of landownership in the period, "Sung" (_??_), i. e. the post-10 century in China. This author, being different from the point of view of Professor Miyazaki and others, should like to emphasize that China in the post-10 century had already institutionalized a serfdom society and the serfs, what we call, " tien-hu " (_??__??_) had been under the extraeconomic compulsive power. Needless to say, the socio-economic conditions, within which they were obliged to be put, had not been altogether similar, due to time and place. We might observe many facts that there were some regions, where the serfs were bound to their land and had no freedom to move about. And also in other regions, plenty of labor-power, the serfs, who had no such compulsion, instead, suffered from the conflicts among them. Moreover, the very conflicts were often caused by the seizure of lands among the lords and made the circumstances of serfs even worse than could be otherwise.
    In the advanced regions, however, the serfs could liberate themselves just around before and after the 17 century (I call it the first stage of serf-liberation of serfdom). Then we should recognize there the ascendancy of contract-consciousness, which could not exist in the previous period.
    The overall, final and decisive liberation of serfdom, of course, was not yet attained until the arrival of the Chinese revolutionary period in the 20th century.
    Download PDF (1131K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 95-132
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (1584K)
  • Terushiro Sera
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 133-160,6
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Nach dem letzten Weltkrieg sind in Japan Zwei neue Theorien betref-fend der Auffassung der europäischen feudalen Gesellschaft aufgetaucht. Nämlich:
    1) die, , Königsfreientheorie ", die in Deutschland in den vierziger Jahren dieses Jahrhunderts von Th. Mayer and H. Dannenbaur aufgestellt war and dort seither mehr and mehr eine herrschende Stellung eingenommen hat. Auch in Japan hat sie bei einigen Erforschern der deutschen Geschi-chte eine große Beistimmung gefunden.
    2) die marxistische, , Gemeindetheorie ", welche, beruhend auf einem Aufsatz von Karl Marx (, , Formen, die der kapitalistischen Produktion vorhergehen "), die Behauptung aufstellt, daß einer feudalen Gesellschaft stets eine feudale (Dorf-) Gemeinde zugrunde liegen müsste. Diese Theorie bildet in unserem Land, wenigstens unter den Wirtschatsgeschichtlern, eine fast herrschende Ansicht.
    Neben diesen zwei neuen Theorien hat natürlich die orthodoxe, , klassische Theorie " wie sie in England and Frankreich noch jetzt ganz herrschend ist, auch in unserem Land viele Anhänger.
    Diese drei Theorien stehen nun, zu meinem grossen Bedauern, gegenein-ander fast ganz gleichgütig nebeneinander, ohne sich auseinandersetzen zu wollen. Solch ein blosses Nebeneinander ist natürlish nicht zu wünschen and muss überwunden werden. Eine lebhafte Polemik untereinander ist dringend nötig. Dabei bilden die folgende punkte wohl die wichtigsten Streitpunkte.
    1) Die, , klassische Theorie " kann nicht mehr in unveränderter Gestalt erhalten werden. Besonders sind die Markgenossenschaftstheorie, der frei-bäuerliche Hufenbegriff and der Begriff der, , Gemeinfreien" erneunt na-chzuprüfen.
    2) Auch die, , Königsfreientheorie" kann, meiner Erachtung nach, in solcher Gestalt, wie sie in Deutschland verfochten ist, nicht anerkannt werden. Namentlich sind die folgenden Punkte zu beachten.
    a) Der Begriff des, , Königsfreien " ist ganz unbestimmt gebraucht. Der Bestimmung nach muss ein Königsfreier eine sich im Verhältnis zum König in einer Hörigkeitsstellung befindliche Person sein, die auf dem Königsland angesiedelt and deren Freiheit vom König verliehen ist. Also wenigstens drei Momente : Hörigkeit (freie Unfreiheit), Königslandsied-lung and verliehene Freiheit sind wesentlich in der Bestimmung des Beg-riffs. Trotzdem in der tatsächlichen Behandlung des Problems folgert man oft auf das Vorhandensein eines Königsfreien ziemlich willkürlich, wenn nur eines jener drei Momente bewiesen werden kann.
    b) Der Begriff des Königsfreien ist ein solcher, der vorläufig nur ein Programm des Königs zum Ausdruck bringt. Wir können nicht aus den Bestimmungen der Kapitularien ohne weiteres annehmen, daß es auch in der Wirklichkeit einen einheitlichen Stand der königsfreien gäbe. Die Verfechter dieser Theorie verwechseln aber oft Programm and Wirklichkeit. Wir haben daher genug Grund, erneut zu fragen, wieviele Tragweite denn der Begriff des Königsfreien babe in der Erforschung der wirklichen Geschi-chtsentwicklung im früheren Mittelalter.
    3) Betreffend der marxistischen, , Gemeindetheorie " sind vornehmlich die folgenden Punkte hervorzuheben.
    a) Die konkrete Gestalt der Dorfgemeinde vor dem 13. Jahrhundert ist noch nicht genug klar gemacht. Insbesondere ist ein entscheidendes Problem : das Verhältnis zwischen der geschlossenen Dorfgemeinde and dem Streubesitz der Grundherrschaft noch gar nicht geklärt.
    b) Nach dieser Theorie ist die Schicht der Feudalherren aus der Auflös-ung der einheitlichen freibäuerlichen Schicht, die einst die Genossen der Dorfgemeinde gebildet hätten, in einem sozusagen natürlichen Prozess entstanden.
    Download PDF (1373K)
  • 1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 161-205
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (2475K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 206
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (64K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 207-223
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (864K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 224-239
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (889K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 240-242
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (179K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 242-246
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (317K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 247-249
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (197K)
  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 249-251
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (194K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 251-252
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (121K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 252-253
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (122K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 253-254
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (125K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 254
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (66K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 254a-255
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (122K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 255-256
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (122K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 256-258
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (183K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 258-259
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (121K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 260
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (65K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 260a-262
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (173K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 262-263
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (126K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 263-264
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (132K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 264-266
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (186K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 266-267
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (126K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 267-268
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (128K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 268-269
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (127K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 269-270
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (124K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 270-271
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (122K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 271-272
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (122K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 272-275
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (248K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 275-277
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (187K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 277-278
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (123K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 278
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (66K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 279
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (65K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 279a-281
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (179K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 281
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (64K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 282a-285
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (250K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 282
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (68K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 285-286
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (125K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 286-287
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (120K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 287-289
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (183K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 289-290
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (119K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1964 Volume 1964 Issue 14 Pages 290-293
    Published: November 15, 1964
    Released: November 16, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (209K)
feedback
Top