Legal History Review
Online ISSN : 1883-5562
Print ISSN : 0441-2508
ISSN-L : 0441-2508
Volume 1969 , Issue 19
Showing 1-40 articles out of 40 articles from the selected issue
  • Toshiro Shigezawa
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 1-24,i
    Published: December 20, 1969
    Released: November 16, 2009
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    I _??__??_, der im 6. -5. vorchristlichen Jahrhundert lebte, hat den Gedanken der herrschenden Klasse in der Zeit der Sklaverei bis zu zu einem Grade in ein System gebracht. Er hat ein Moralsystem ausgebildet, in dem _??_, Ehrfurct und Gehorsam des Kindes gegen die Eltern, als Grundpfeiler zu allen Normen in der Sozialordnung galt. Dieses System beruhte in institutioneller Hinsicht darauf, dass die hausväterliche Gewalt oder patria potestas entstanden ist.
    Ökonomisch gesehen hatte der Hausvater eine ausschliessliche Herrschaft über das Hausvermögen. Wo das Vermögen, das beherrscht zu werden verdient, vorhanden ist, entsteht erst da das Moralsystern, welches eng mit der Erhaltung des Vermögensrechts verknüpft ist.
    II In der Geistesgeschicht des Rechts sollte man die folgenden Vorgänge in Betracht nehmen, die auf die Zeit von _??__??_ zurückgehen. Der eine ist die Abfassung and die Veröffentlichung der cinfachen Strafgesetze (von _??__??_ und _??__??_ entworfen). Der andere ist das Hervortreten und das Tätigwerden der Berufsjuristen (_??__??_). Die Gesetzgebungne haben sich in _??_ und _??_ vollzogen. Eine konservative Patrel, der auch _??__??_ gehörte, hat Einwände gegen sie erhoben and die Gesetzverfasser wurden gezwungen, ihre Arbeit einzustellen. Trotzdem haben sie ihre Werke zur Vollendung gebracht. In _??_ findet man Nachrichten über die Juristen, die als Repräsenten des Volkes danach trachteten, sein Interesse mit der Waffe des Rechts zu wahren. Das weist auf die Entwicklung des Privatrechts bin.
    Damals war _??_ ein führender Handelsstaat, wo kaufmännische Gruppe mit politischem Einfluss hervorgegangen sind. Dass _??__??__??__??_ gegenüber _??__??__??__??_ sich durchsetzte, entspricht dem neuen sozialwirtschaftlichen Zustand dieser Zeit, wie der Entwicklung der Warenproduktion, der Erhebung des Konsumslebens and der Ausdehnung des Verkehrskreises.
    III Wenn man den Stand der Gedanken nach ein oder zweihundert Jahren betrachtet, so durfte man hinweisen :
    (1) Unter den Lehren von _??__??__??__??_ ist eine politische Theorie, die man _??__??__??_ genannt hat, in den Vordergrund gekommen. _??__??_ war einer der Hauptvertreter dieser politischen Theorie, der ethisch seine eigene Anthropologie und ökonomisch das von ihm geschaffene _??__??__??__??_ zugrund lagen. _??__??__??__??_, eine Art der Grundherrschaft hatte eine entscheidende Bedeutung für die bestehende Ordnung, deren Erhaltung and Stärkung _??__??_ als seine eigene Aufgabe angesehen hat. _??__??__??__??_ funktionierte als Instrument zum Abhägigmachen des Bauers and zum Erheben der Naturalabgabe. Eben durch diese Funktion wurde _??__??__??__??_ ein wesentlicher Bestandteil von _??__??__??__??_, ander der konfuzianistische Gelehrtenstand. nämlich der Vertreter der feudalen herrschenden Klasse, zwei Tausend Jahre lang festgehalten hat.
    (2) Im Gegensatz zu der Intention von _??__??_ sind neue politische Theorien and damit neue Rechtsbegriffe schnell entstanden.
    Es hat sich verschleunigt unter dem zunehmenden Einfluss von dem kaufmännischen Stand and dern Bauernstand. Für die neuen Theorien waren _??__??_(_??__??__??_), _??__??_(_??__??_)_??__??_ und _??__??_(_??__??_)typisch Als _??__??_ in der Mitte des 4. vorchristlichen Jahrhunderts zur Regierung in _??_ gelangen ist, hat er die Bodenreform durch seine erfolgreichen Kämpfe durchgeführt, um das schon vorhandene Bodensystem umzustürzen. Die revolutionäre Bedeutung dieser Reform bestand darin, nicht nur dass man der neu emporkommenden Masse die Freiheit. Grundstücke durch ihre eigenen Kläfte zu erwerben, rechtlich gesichert hat, sondern auch dass man die Sozialordnung auf dem ganz neuen Wertsystem des Rechts umgebaut hat.
    Deshalb nennt man die obengenannten politischen Lehren _??__??__??_ im allgemeinen.
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  • Ikuzo Okumura
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 25-50,ii
    Published: December 20, 1969
    Released: November 16, 2009
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    It was my view to treat how far the Bureaucratic Central Government penetrated into the local government in Old China.Old China was united as an empire in the early third century B.C. It was Han Dynasty. And that type of government as such lasted until the early twentieth century. Through these times, Central Government developed. from the early primitive one to the latest advanced stage.
    Meanwhile, how was the local Self-Government i.e. Government in various villages and hamlet, Government in agnatic families and in commercial guilds, etc.?
    Last, how did "Xuli"(lower government sub-officials operate)? They took an active part both in admininistrative and judical field in favour of Central Government. Thus, the Bureaucratic Central Government penetrated into the local people, except the unimportant political affairs.
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  • Takeshi Hayashi
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 51-84,iii
    Published: December 20, 1969
    Released: November 16, 2009
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    In den deutschen (europäischen) Städten des Mittelalters sind viele neue Rechtsein-richtungen gebildet worden.
    Besonders wohlbekannt sind die privatrechtliche Einrichtungen im mittelalterlichen Stadtrecht.
    In Deutschland sind viele Forschungsarbeiten seit dem 19. Jahrhundert gemacht worden, in denen die privatrechtliche Einrichtungen im Stadtrecht ausführlich erläutert worden sind. In Japan ist die Bedeutung der privatrechtlichen Einrichtungen im Stadtrecht zwar seit früher anerkannt worden, aber die Aufnahme der deutschen Forschungsergebnisse ist bisher nur selten gemacht worden. Man muss nunmehr die Forschung von den privatrechtlichen Einrichtungen im deutschen Stadtrecht vorwärts bringen. Um these empfindliche Lücke in der Forschung auszufüllen, versuche ich in diesem Aufsatz die neuere Satzung in Köln zu bearbeiten. Im 12. Jahrhundert, also in der Zeit des glänzenden Aufschwungs des Kölner Handels, trat das Bedürfnis unter den Fernhandelsleute hervor, das Kapitalbedarf durch Verpfändung von Haus and Hof ohne Besitz, der für ihr Gewerbe unentbehrlich war, zu decken. Anderseits hatten die Kaufleute, die durch den Handel reich geworden sind, hatten das Bedürfnis, sich ein wertbeständiges Vermögen durch Anlegung ihrer Handelsgewinne in Grund and Boden zu schaffen. Aus diesen beiden Bedürfnissen ist die neuere Satzung als die erste deutschrechtliche Hypothek entstanden. Und was die Entstehung der neueren Satzung dabei möglich machte, war das berühmte Kölner Schreinswesen, das älteste deutsche Grundbuch. Dass die neuere Satzung üblich war, wird schon in der ältesten Schreinskarten bezeugt.Im weiteren Verlauf des 12. Jahrhunderts ist sie alltäglich geworden. Ich verdanke meinen Aufsatz den folgenden Forschungen von Dr. Hans Planitz: Das Grundpfandrecht in den Kolner Schreinskarten, ZRG. G. A. 54. 1934; Das deutsche Grundpfandrecht, 1936.
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  • Yoshio Shiono
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 85-110,iv
    Published: December 20, 1969
    Released: November 16, 2009
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    It has so far been accepted as an adequate explanation that villages in modern age were, on the whole, brought into existence, through the processes first of the dissolution of sho's(_??_)and gos(_??_) which had been the units for life and production in agricultural districts since the middle ages, and secondly of the rearrangement of arable land (these two processes are recognized as ‘muragiri’(_??__??__??_) and the rearrangement of ‘deirisaku’ _??__??__??__??_), both of which procedures naturally played the part of fixing the boundaries of villages, and that the villages thus born consequently came to assume the form of modern village-cooperative-bodies (_??__??__??__??__??__??_) composed of small feudalistic farmers.
    In this article, the author, focussing his investigation on the agricultural districts in the Kyoto-Osaka area, traced back through the above-mentioned general movement from the period under the Toyotomi regime (_??__??__??__??_)to the early modern period (Kanbun period _??__??_—Erlpo period _??__??_), only to find out no reliable examples that might survive the operation of logical analysis in view of ‘muragiri’ in its strict sense. Furthermore, the fact revealed to the author is such as requires some explanation quite separate from that of the movement of the formation of cooperative bodies with farmers as their main constituents; namely, the then Baku-han regime made it the greatest end in the sphere of its agricultural politics, to eliminate the formidable influences grasped by the local powerful families (_??__??__??__??_), and for that purpose, the former must needs deprive the latter of their sway over hills and water which were the root of their ruling Power. The fact that many of the Baku-han-ryoshu's (_??__??__??__??_), or the landlords under the Tokugawa regime, concentrated their efforts on the development of the utilization of water, mostly in the field of irrigation, and of the construction workings, was directly and most significantly related tothis. Thus, under a thorough administrative intention, the creation ofvillages was to get under way, by forcing down the social standings of dogo's(_??__??_), or local powerful families to those of farmers as landowners.
    The villages brought into the world by this policy contain the tendency toward the economical territory based on the land measurement system by koku (_??_), and may be recognized as administrative villages quite different in their character from those of agriculturalcooperative-bodies (_??__??__??__??__??_).
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  • Masayuki Koike
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 111-128,v
    Published: December 20, 1969
    Released: November 16, 2009
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    S. B. Chrimes said that " the seventeenth century is the Heroic age in English constitutional History."
    If this is true, we must take notice of the importance of the legal theories in the controveries upon the constitutional issues at the time, when we make a detailed study of the legal and political thoughts in England.
    This article, from the point of view that a legal thought is sharped up on the basis of the interdependance betweeen the legal idea and the legal system, deals with the law-reform-movement of the Levellers during the period from 1647 to 1649 and clarifies the significance of the theories among them, particulary that of W. Walwyn who was the most original rationalist of all their leaders.
    The author argues how the idea of the fundamental human rights originating from the ethical rule of the separatists was embodied in the legal principle called " The Agreement of the People, " the first written constitutional draft founded on the democratic social contract theory of the Levellers. But the draft failed to be a formal constitution, because it was inconsistent with the spirits or the age.
    The author, explicating the process of the formation of the draft and its abandonment, concludes that the social contract theory based on the natural right was too idealistic to be a principle giving rise to a new legal system, although it had destroyed the old order.
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  • Koichi Nakazawa, Hiroshi Kobayashi
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 129-151,v
    Published: December 20, 1969
    Released: November 16, 2009
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    The aim of this essay is to describe briefly the significant feature of the official control over the lowly (Eta _??__??_) by the Kyto Deputy Governor (Kyoto-shoshidai _??__??__??__??__??_) and his following in the Edo era.
    Through these times, Amabe (_??__??_), Rokujo(_??__??_) Kawasaki (_??__??_), Rendaino (_??__??__??_), Kitakoji (_??__??__??_) and Kujo (_??__??_) became known as the main Eta-villages in Kyoto. In these villages, Eta lived on skinning animals (mainly horses and cattle) and making leather from them. They bore a part in the miscellaneous business about the criminal execution as their duty. The affairs of these six Eta-villages were administered by the five or six seniors (Toshiyori _??__??_) of Amabe-village and Rokujo.
    At first, in 1624, Mr. Shimomura (_??__??_) was nominated for the Eta-chief (Etagasira _??__??__??_) by the Tokugawa Shogunate, because of the necessity of keeping public order in Kyoto. With the stability of Shogunate's power, about 1708, the Eta-chief in Kyoto was abolished. Since then, in place of him, the semi-official staff (Shiza-zoshiki (_??__??__??__??_)had control over the lowly. The head of Shiza-zoshiki, Kami-no-zoshiki (_??__??__??_) was composed of the four hereditary families. They conferred together about their official business, as the Eta-Toshiyori did so. On the other hand, in Edo, the lowly was always controlled by the hereditary Etagashira Danzaemon (_??__??__??__??_) through the Edo era. This absolute boss control in Edo formed a striking contrast to the control by the council system in Kyoto.
    Thus, we must indicate the following two facts as the feature concerning the official control over the Eta in Kyoto…first, the control by the council system, and secondly, zoshiki's historical continuity from the middle age.
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  • [in Japanese]
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 153-154
    Published: December 20, 1969
    Released: November 16, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 154-155
    Published: December 20, 1969
    Released: November 16, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 155-158
    Published: December 20, 1969
    Released: November 16, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 158-159
    Published: December 20, 1969
    Released: November 16, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 159-161
    Published: December 20, 1969
    Released: November 16, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 161-162
    Published: December 20, 1969
    Released: November 16, 2009
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    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 162-164
    Published: December 20, 1969
    Released: November 16, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 164-165
    Published: December 20, 1969
    Released: November 16, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 165-166
    Published: December 20, 1969
    Released: November 16, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 166-167
    Published: December 20, 1969
    Released: November 16, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 167-168
    Published: December 20, 1969
    Released: November 16, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 168-170
    Published: December 20, 1969
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  • [in Japanese]
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 170-171
    Published: December 20, 1969
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  • [in Japanese]
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 171-172
    Published: December 20, 1969
    Released: November 16, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 172
    Published: December 20, 1969
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  • [in Japanese]
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 172a-173
    Published: December 20, 1969
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  • [in Japanese]
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 173-174
    Published: December 20, 1969
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  • [in Japanese]
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 174-176
    Published: December 20, 1969
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    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 176
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  • [in Japanese]
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 177-178
    Published: December 20, 1969
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  • [in Japanese]
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 178-179
    Published: December 20, 1969
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  • [in Japanese]
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 179-180
    Published: December 20, 1969
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  • [in Japanese]
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 180-181
    Published: December 20, 1969
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  • [in Japanese]
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 181
    Published: December 20, 1969
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  • [in Japanese]
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 181a-183
    Published: December 20, 1969
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  • [in Japanese]
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 183
    Published: December 20, 1969
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  • [in Japanese]
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 183a-184
    Published: December 20, 1969
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    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 184-185
    Published: December 20, 1969
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  • [in Japanese]
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 185-186
    Published: December 20, 1969
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    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 186-187
    Published: December 20, 1969
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  • [in Japanese]
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 187
    Published: December 20, 1969
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  • [in Japanese]
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 187a-188
    Published: December 20, 1969
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    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 188-189
    Published: December 20, 1969
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  • [in Japanese]
    1969 Volume 1969 Issue 19 Pages 189-190
    Published: December 20, 1969
    Released: November 16, 2009
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