It is sometimes said that direct democracy can be put into practice in the highly information-oriented society. But <<democracy>> cannot be reduced to the efficiency of voting processing. <<Democracy>> has 'various aspects' and 'self-recurrence'. Under <<democracy>> people can be the mob, or can rebuid <<democracy>>. Especially the 'self-recurrence' has adaptability to <<digitization>>. <<Digitization>> is the tool which carries out 'high-mobility','high-preservability' and 'infinite reproduction' of contents. People can utilize digital data for democratic deliberation. By using internet, for instance, 'electronic forum' can be held in cyberspace. It can get over the limits of time, space and economy. On that point the on-line communication network can be a democratic tool. But the ploblem is in that how people take part in the rocesses of political practices. Firstly people need to keep striving for technical knowledge on the issue in question. Secondly people can transmit and receive live messages globally. Thirdly education can play an important part in connectiong <<democracy>> with practice of people's lives. I insist that the relation between the upturn of 'social speed' and 'spontaneuos order' should also be considered. 'Spontaneous order' is the foundation of society. We should be very careful to maintain 'spontaneuos order'. And I suggest <<dual composion of decision>>, which mixes indirect democracy with direct democracy in some ways.
This paper studies joint custody in the United States and examines that joint custody can be executed in Japan. In the United States after the parents have divorces, they can be entitled to joint custody. Then, minor children can have frewuent and continuing contact with both parents after the parets have divorced. Joint custody means joint physical custodyand joint legal custody. Joint legal custody means that both parents shall the right and the responsibility to make the decisions relation to the health, education, and welfare of a child. Joint physical custody means that each of the parents shall have significant periods of physical custody. Joint physical custody shall be shared by the parents in such a way so as to assure a child of frewuent and continuing contact with both parents. About 40 states have a statute providing joint custody now. Every state does not have a statute providing joint custody and joint legal custody. Many states have a statute providing only joint legal custody. Divorced couples, in the states which have a statute providing joint physical custody and joint legal custody, use more joint legal custody than joint physical custody. Because joint physical custody requires them to live in neighborhood and to prepare a room for chilren each other. In Japan, article 766 of civil code does not limit the number of the persons to be entitled to custody. After the parents have divorced, both parents can be entitled to joint custody. I conclude joint custody can realize in Japan. Actually,what kind of joint custody can be realized in Japan? Considering housing situations, joint physical custody which requires both parents to prepare a room for chilren can not be realized. So I think joint legal custody can be realized in Japan.
The 96th Symposium was held at Osaka Gakuin University on Saturday, 29 June, 2002. The uniform theme of this symposim was "The Control of Crisis by a State". As this symposium was organized by colleagues specialized in Law and Politics, this theme is very suitable, we think. From 13:30, four panelists presented their studies at the session. Isao Nishimura (Okayama Comercial College) presented his study on the theme "Risikovorsorge als Staatsaufgabe". Hidehiro Hayama (Matsusaka University) presented his study on the theme "The Constitution of Japan and Emergency Powers-The participation of the Diet and the way of protecting nations". Yoshihiro Yamauchi (Keiai University) presented his study on the theme "The control of crisis by a state and international criminal law". Last Panelist, Yoshinobu Araki (Matsusaka Univeristy) presented his study on the theme "Political Psychology of New Terrorism: The Aum Shinrikyo Sect and Usama bin Laden's al-Qaida". After these significant presentation, there were some questions and answers, and this symposium was closed at 17:00 successfully. We thank all the persons of Osaka Gakuin Univeristy concerning to hold this meeing.
Zu den Rechtfertigungen des Staates gehort der Zweck, die Sicherheit seiner Mitglieder zu gewahrleisten. Die Entwicklung der Wirtschaft bringt neue Risiken mit sich. Aber als treibende Kraft tritt der wissenschaftlichtechnische Fortschritt hinzu. An der Staat wird die Erwartungen herangetragen, der Risiko Grenzen zu setzen. Vor diesem Hintergrund wandelt sichdie Aufgabe des Staates von der Gefahrenabwehr zur Risikovorsorge. Der Sozialstaat fuhrt zum Praventions- und Vorsorgestaat.Vorsorge verlangt dieaktive und planvolle Gestaltung eines sozio-technischen Bedingunsflechtes.
1 The significance and contents on the enactment of emergency laws 2 The participation of the Diet and its comparioson between Japan and U.S. (1) the case of U.S. (2) the case of Japan (3) the characteristic and the comparison of the case between Japan and U.S. (4) the clegislative veto or the approval with time limit by the Diet 3 Viewpoints for the laws of protecting nations (1) the outline of Federal Emergency Management Agency(FEMA) in U.S. (1) basic guideline on the foundation of the FEMA (2) structures and functions of the FEMA (2) the present conditions of disaster-prevention organization in Japan -the case Shizuoka Prefecture- Conclusion
With development of capitalism, scientific technology between countories in the world, example, traffic network and comunication network, developed remarkable. And the same time, at the hidden side, a crime became internationalization and it spread and began to show itself gradully. It is well known fact that especially, over latter half of the 20th century, with economic activity became global, wicked crimes by large-scale international systems incresed and stability of politic and economic and social life of countories became to threaten. These facts just were forced to investigated about the way control of crises ought to be between countories and countermeasure between countories againt international and systematic crimes. In recent year, under the slogan "the world is one", the 10th congress was opened on 4・2000 in Wein and the examination about international law againt various wicked international crimes went to ahead activity. In this my report, keeping the flow of these international conferences, I want to examine what inernational criminal law should to be. Contents 1. Internationalization of crime and the trend (1) Cause of crime-internationalozation (2) Trend of international crime in Japan 2. Countermeasures of counties in the world and japan (1) Countermeasures of counties in the world (2) Countermeasures of japan 3. Positive countemeasure to international criminial law (1) Principle of national criminal jurisdiction and the extension (2) Establischment of international criminal court
September 9/11 shocked the Japanese. It also reminded me of the 1995 sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subways by the Aum Shinrikyo and the Oklahome City Bombing by the American extreme right. A novel form of terrorism seems to have aroused since 1995. Therefore I haved tried to analyze some similarity and difference between the Aum Shinrikyo Sect and Usama bin Laden's al-Quaida for several months in order to clarify the content of a "new terrorism". Although at first Iassumed that the two incidents were heterogeneous, the more I have analyzed them, the more I have founed out that were homogeneous. This paper tries to examine the similarity between the two groups and point out that their common motivation is a kind of self-actualization developed by A. H. Maslow. The survey includes anomie scale and authoritarian scale. This analysis reveals that economic factor and anomie factor infuluence over the self-actualization of current Japanese students who must overcome their anxiety aroused by the serious economic crisis as well as their identity crisis developed by Erick H. Erikson. It also points out that such a selfactualizaion and authoritarian personality developed by Erich Fromm influence over their inclination to religion. As a result it implies that such a perspective could explain also the behaviors of the Aum Shinrikyo Sect and Usama bin Laden' al-Qaida: The two terrorist goups that are mainly consisted of young males escape from freemdon comitting to religion, namely Aum Shinrikyo or "fundamentarlist" Islam to remove anxiety aroused by the serious economic crisis.
In modern society, the scene where a state participates in freedom of expression positively is seen not infrequently. For example, there is support about exhibition of a fine-arts worek, and subsidy aiming at promotion of media art, such as a movie. In oder to promote expression, when the assistance and the support by the state are made, by law, to a receiver, conditions are attached oe selection by the state is made from two or more proposers. Traditional Freedom of expression principle has been chiefly aimed at the positive regulation by the state.For example, they are penal regulations or prior restraint. However, how should the relation between freedom of expression and state be considered by assistance which is not so? This report introduces the argument in the court case and the theory in the United States, and considers the problem of Government-Funded Speech.
Warrant is issued through the judgement of judicial officer. Arrest, search and/or seizure ordinarily is executed upon the warrant. But ex post facto the has a complaint about the warrant itself and/or the sufficiency and veracity if the required materials dor the warrant. In this paper the author considers the statistical circumstances of issuing warrants in Japan and recognizes that criminal defendants rarely make motion to complain of the warrant because it is difficult for them to access to the related documents with warrant in spite of the law of Japanese criminal procedure which affords to them opportunities judicial hearing to issued warrant. But the author thinks Japanese Constitution secures them procedural reight of judicial review for issued warrant and right of access to the related papers. The contents of this essay are as follows: I Introduction II Judicial Hearing for Issued Warrant in criminal Procedure III Defendant's Access to Related Documents with Warrant IV Warrant Requirement in Consitution of Japan V Conclusion
Muneo Matsuji was born in Tottori Prefecture in 1897. After he graduated from Doshisha University. He became a newspaperman of "Ryoto-Shimpo", one of the oldest Japanese newpaper in Manchuria. While working as a newspaperman, in 1992 he studied liberal journalizm in Missouri State Unversity, Colombia led by Walter Williams who had started the journalism department first in the United States. After he came back to Japan, he became a newspaperman for "the Tokyo Asahi" and published "Beikoku Shimbungyo-no-kenkyu" ("Study of Journalism in the United States"). In 1930 he published "Shimbungaku Gairon" (Introduction of Journalism). In all, he published 8 books of his own and 4 books under joint authorship. In this later years he became the head of Makassar branch in Celebes (now Sulawesi) and engaged in publishing "the Borneo" under Japanese naval rule. In this paper I am going to discuss his life and work as a liberal journalist. Under "the 15 year-war" and explain the correlation between the characteristics of Japanese Military and the newspapers in Southeast Asia after the opening of the Pacific War.
1 Einfuhrung (1)Der Begriff des Risikos (2)Notwendiges Risikos-Manegement fur den Pflegedienst 2 Die Charaktere des Pflegevertrags (1)Die Begrenzung gegen den Prinzip der Vertragsfreiheit und der Risiko (2)Rechtliches Natur der Pflegevertrags (3)Die Charaktere des Pflegevertrags als Dauerschuldverhaltnis (4)Die Charaktere des Pflegevertrags als pflegerischer Versorgungsvertrag 3 Der Risiko des Pflefgevertrags 4 Schlussbemerkung
In the history of Western constitutionalism, Conciliarism or the consiliarmovement in the late fourteenth and early fifteenth century was a significant chapter. According to The Cambridge History of Medieval Political Thought c.350-c.1450(1988), Conciliarism may be divided into three phases: (i)1378-83, when its advocates drew exrensively on Marsiglio and,especially, Ockham; (ii)1408-18, when a quasi-patristic of power-sharing between pope and bishops-in council was dominant; (iii)1432-50, when unlimited sovereignty was claimed for an internally democratic coucil. Maybe the first author who suggested the importance of Conciliarism in the history of Western constitutionalism was John Neville Figgis. He wrote in his Studies of Political Thought from Gerson to Grotius 1414-1625(1907): "Probably the most revolutionary official documents in the history of the world is the decree of the Council of Constance asserting its superiority to the Pope, and striving to turn into a tepid constitutionalism the Divine authority of a tho0usand years". Among the decrees of the Counsil of Constance, Haec sancta (1415) and Frequent (1417) are important.The thesis propounded by Figgis, expanded by many scholars in two direction: (i)detailed study of the major and minor theorists and pamphletters contributed to the conciliar theory of Constance and its era; (ii)the basic precepts of conciliar thought were themselves rooted in a tradition of canon law that dated as foa as the twelfth-century decretists. This is mainly Brain Tierney's discovery. I think thst the core assertion of the constitutionalism is limitation of powers by law or restriction of arbitrary power-exercised by the power-holders. So,the separation of power-holder and decision-maker is a essential element of conctitutionalism. Form this point of view, conciliarism that asserted superiority of the Council to the Pops has a constitutionalistic character, but conciliarism that claimed unlimited sovereignty for the Council might not be combined with constitutionalism.
Siefried Kracauer ist ein Kulturphilosoph, der hauptsachlich in der Weimarer Zeit tatig war. Er hatte einen Umgang mit Walter Benjamin, Theodor Adorno und Ernst Bloch. Indem das Interesse fur Marxismus, die kritische Einstellung zu ihren Zeit,die Hoffnung auf die Erlosung usw. ihnen gemeinsam waren, konstituierten sie sozusagen eine Konstellation. Kracaucerist nicht so popularwie die anderen Denker, aber doch verdient sein Gedanke Untersuchung.So diese Abhandlung zieht seines Denken in Betrachtung. Sie behandelt besonders den jungen Kracauer. Der junge Kracauer kritisiert die Sinnlosigkeit der Moderne. Aber weder bekehrt er sich voreilig zu den neuen Propheten, noch verzicht er auf die Erlosung. Statt dessen blickt er starr auf die Oberflache der modernen Gesellschaft wie zum Beispiel den Detektivroman, die Tillergirls und die Photographie. Durch die Analuse solcher Ohanomene bringt er es ans Licht, dass in der Moderne ein sinnerfullter Kosmos durch die Herrschaft der rtio zerbrochen wird. Zugleich entdeckt er eben in der Zerstorung des Kosmos die Moglichleit der Ankumft der vernunftigen Ordnung.
Dokuritsu-gyousei-houjin (Agency) has been introduced into the level of Japanese central government from the view of Thatcherisms; "efficiency and effectivenes by privatization of public enterprise". Some Japanese national research institutions have been transformed to agency, and now central government examines to introduce Chihouban-dokuritsu-gyousei-houjin (local agency) into the level of local government. So this thesis tries to examine the issue of the point; how we introduce local agency in order to democratize local autonomy in Japan. In British government, local agency already has been re-examined from the vies of "The Third Way" under Blair government. It is to remake local agency as leader of local community, because local agency has the significance that local residents carry on their local publicity; it means new local governance. Moreover from the view of deliberative democracy, local agency is examined to be social agency, which is the represented space of policy produced by people's public discussion and activity. In Japan, we need to think the introduction of local agency not only from the view of reformation of administration. Thatcherism, but also from the view of deliberative democracy. It is because Japanese local autonomy is still put into insufficient situation on autonomy by residents; "Jumin Jichi". Local agency essentially has plural significance for local autonomy. So if we, Japanese, try to reform local autonomy with the introduction of local agency, we should examine the significance of local agency in order to realize "local autonomy" in Japan.
In the final report produced in December, 1997 by the Administrative Reform Council, national universities were not included in the targets of turning into independent administrative corporations. However, another final report, "A New Image of National Univeristy Corporations"issued in March, 2002 by a Study Team concernig the Transformation of National Universities into Independent Administrative Corporations descrived an image of national university corporations. The present study is intended to explain two factors that have been promoting the transformation of national universities into independent administrative Corporations. The two factors are (1) outsoucing of administrative functions and (2) business-academia collaboration. The study also examines some effects of these factors on constructing a system for transforming national universities into independent administrative corporations.